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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Liver〈+〉—〈+〉CT〈+〉—〈+〉Neoplasms〈+〉—〈+〉Diagnosis.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Background: The objective of this study was to determine if spiral computed tomography (CT) results in increased rate of detection of focal hepatic nodules containing iodized oil after transcatheter oily chemoembolization when compared with conventional CT. Methods: Spiral CT with single 24-s breath-hold technique was compared with conventional sequential CT in 42 patients with suspected hepatocellular carcinomas. Two sets of CT scans obtained after transcatheter oily chemoembolization were independently reviewed by two radiologists. The slice thickness was 10 mm for both data sets. The number and sizes of focal hepatic nodules containing iodized oil were documented. All 42 patients had at least one hepatic nodule. The lesion size varied from 2 mm to 12 cm. Results: In six of the 42 patients, more hepatic nodules could be identified on spiral CT compared with conventional CT. When scans with spiral CT were used, 107 nodules were detected, whereas 98 nodules were detected with conventional CT. Overall, nine (9%) more nodules were detected with spiral CT (〈+〉p= .002). If lesions larger than 2 cm are excluded, nine (15%) more lesions were detected with spiral CT (〈+〉p= .002). Conclusion: Spiral CT results in increased rate of detection of focal hepatic nodules after transcatheter oily chemoembolization, particularly in lesions smaller than 2 cm.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Computed tomography, technology—Pancreas, CT—Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, CT.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Background: Spiral computed tomography (CT) allows the pancreas to be imaged during peak contrast levels owing to the capability of fast data acquisition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative value of the arterial and late phases of spiral CT for detecting pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Methods: Twenty-two patients with pathologically proved pancreatic adenocarcinomas underwent two-phase spiral CT. The CT scans were performed with 5 mm collimation and 5 mm/s table speed. Images during the arterial and late phases were obtained at 30- and 180-second delays, respectively. The images of the arterial phase were compared with those of the late phase in terms of tumor conspicuity from surrounding pancreatic parenchyma and tumor detectability by means of a 3-point grading system: 1 (poor), 2 (fair), and 3 (good). Results: In terms of tumor conspicuity from surrounding pancreatic parenchyma, 16 lesions (73%) were good, 5 lesions (23%) were fair, and 1 lesion (4%) was poor during the arterial phase, whereas 6 lesions (27%) were good, 9 lesions (41%) were fair, and 7 lesions (32%) were poor during the late phase (p= 0.0007). The arterial phase was superior to the late phase in 16 patients (73%) and equal in 6 patients (27%). For tumor detectability, 18 lesions (82%) were good, 3 lesions (14%) were fair, and 1 lesion (4%) was poor during the arterial phase, whereas 10 lesions (45%) were good, 7 lesions (32%) were fair, and 5 lesions (23%) were poor during the late phase (p= 0.0033). For detectability, the arterial phase was superior to the late phase in 14 patients (64%) and equal in 8 patients (36%). Conclusion: The arterial phase of spiral CT is superior to the late phase, which is equivalent to conventional CT for detecting pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Liver, CT—Liver, neoplasm—Hemangioma.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate contrast-enhancement patterns of hepatic hemangioma according to size during hepatic arterial (30-s delay) and portal venous (65-s delay) phases of spiral computed tomography (CT). During a 10-month-period, 73 patients with 118 hemangiomas underwent two-phase spiral CT examination. The enhancement patterns of tumors were divided into four types based on the attenuation of surrounding liver parenchyma: peripherally nodular high, uniform high, iso, and low. The diameter of the tumors were 〈10 mm (n= 39), 11–20 mm (n= 33), and 〉21 mm (n= 46). Overall, the most common enhancement patterns of hemangioma were peripherally nodular high (66/118, 55.9%) during the arterial and portal venous phases. The second most common contrast-enhancement patterns of hemangioma were uniform high (15/118, 12.7%) during the arterial and portal venous phases. In tumors smaller than 20 mm, 11 (9.3%) had low-low attenuation and two (1.7%) had iso-low attenuation during the arterial and portal venous phases, respectively. In conclusion, at two-phase spiral CT, the most common contrast-enhancement patterns of hemangioma are peripherally nodular high and/or uniform high during the arterial and portal venous phases. However, hemangiomas smaller than 2 cm may have atypical enhancing patterns including low and iso-attenuation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Liver—Neoplasms—US—CT—MR.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: To verify characteristic features of hepatic dysplastic nodules at different imaging modalities. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with 37 dysplastic nodules of the liver (0.8–3.0 cm) underwent sonography (28 patients), computed tomography (CT; 24 patients), magnetic resonance (MR; 11 patients), and angiography (12 patients). Each nodule was analyzed for echogenicity, attenuation, signal intensity, and vascularity. Results: Echogenicity of nodules was high in 16 (43%), homogeneous in two (6%), and low in 19 (51%) of 37 nodules. Attenuation of nodules was high in one (7%), homogeneous in four (26%), and low in 10 (67%) of 15 nodules on the arterial-phase CT images; homogeneous in five (33%) and low in 10 (67%) of 15 nodules on the portal-phase CT images; and high in four (17%), homogeneous in six (26%), and low in 13 (57%) of 23 nodules on the delayed-phase CT images. Signal intensity of nodules was high in 15 (94%) and homogeneous in one (6%) of 16 nodules on T1-weighted MR images and was homogeneous in seven (44%) and low in nine (56%) of 16 nodules on T2-weighted MR images. Vascularity of nodules was avascular in 14 (88%) and slightly vascular in two (12%) of 16 nodules. Conclusions: Hepatic dysplastic nodules show diverse imaging characteristics with different imaging techniques; however, common imaging findings of hepatic dysplastic nodules are low echo, low attenuation, and high, low, or homogeneous intensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR, and avascularity.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Stomach—Gastric cancer—Magnetic resonance imaging—Contrast media.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: To evaluate clinical usefulness of oral contrast agents (gadopentetate dimeglumine and water) and to assess proper magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in evaluating advanced gastric cancer (AGC) by comparing different MR imaging techniques. Methods: Fifteen patients with AGC were imaged with a 1.0-T MR imager and body-array coil. All patients underwent surgery or laparascopic biopsy. Fast low-angle shot (FLASH), half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE), and true fast imaging with steady-state precession time (FISP) images were obtained after ingestion of 900 mL tap water in each patient, followed by postcontrast FLASH images after additional ingestion of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). Qualitative analysis including T-staging of AGC and scoring of imaging quality and quantitative analysis were performed prospectively. Results: In image quality and diagnostic accuracy of T-staging, FLASH imaging showed results slightly superior to those of other imaging modalities, and there was no great difference between using water and Gd-DTPA as an oral contrast agent. As for cancer-to-gastric lumen contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), HASTE and true FISP imaging were superior to FLASH imaging with Gd-DTPA (p 〈 0.0001). In cancer-to-pancreas CNR, FLASH imaging without Gd-DTPA showed the best result. Conclusions: The use of Gd-DTPA as a positive contrast agent may not be imperative, and T1-weighted FLASH imaging in combination with true FISP imaging with ingestion of tap water can be very useful in evaluating AGC with MR imaging.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Pancreas, ectopic—Stomach, diseases—Stomach, cysts—Stomach, CT.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to characterize the computed tomographic (CT) findings of heterotopic pancreas of the stomach. Methods: CT scans of six surgically proven cases of heterotopic pancreas of the stomach were reviewed. Three were dynamic spiral CT scans, with both arterial dominant and late phase scans. In other three, both unenhanced and contrast-enhanced scans were obtained by using conventional techniques. Particular attention was given to the enhancement of the heterotopic pancreas. Pathologic and surgical findings were correlated with CT findings. Results: The locations were in the gastric antrum in five cases and in the mid-body in one. Size ranged from 1 cm to 3 cm (mean = 2.1 cm). Three cases showed homogeneous, strong enhancement similar to the pancreas and consisted mainly of pancreatic acini with the same histologic features as the normal pancreas. Two cases showed poor enhancement and consisted mainly of ducts and hypertrophied muscle; pancreatic acini were a minor component. In one case appearing as a cystic lesion on CT, a pseudocyst was found with many ducts and some nests of pancreatic acini. Conclusions: Heterotopic pancreas of the stomach showed a diverse spectrum of CT findings. Good understanding of these CT findings may be helpful in making a correct diagnosis.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report a 5-year-old boy with endodermal sinus tumour associated with benign cystic teratoma of the common bile duct (CBD). To our knowledge, there has been one case of teratoma of the CBD in the English literature with no morphological or radiological description. Our case presented a lobulated polypoid mass obstructing the distal CBD on sonography and computed tomography, which resembled the botryoid masses of rhabdomyosarcoma.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mesenteric arteriovenous fitulas or arteriovenous malformations of the intestine are relatively rare, especially in the form of diffuse disease. We describe a case of diffuse intestinal arteriovenous malformation associated with congestive heart failure and cutaneous hemangioma.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Six cases of undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES) were reviewed to determine their characteristic features on ultrasonography (US) (n=5) and computed tomography (CT) (n=6). US demonstrated a single large, echogenic mass with some anechoic spaces. Contrast-enhanced CT scan revealed a well-demarcated low-attenuation mass with hyperdense septations of variable shape and thickness. Discrepancy of internal architecture on US and CT was one of the important characteristics of UES. CT numbers were 25–47 HU in low-attenuation areas. Enhancing peripheral rim was found in four cases and some solid portions at the periphery or adjacent to the septa were found in all cases. Two patients who had follow-up US and CT without treatment showed enhancing solid portions, changing to hypodense as the tumor grew. When compared with the pathologic findings, US showed a more accurate representation of internal architecture than did CT. Familiarity with these US and CT findings of UES of the liver will be helpful in the differential diagnosis of primary hepatic tumors in childhood.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Behçet's disease ; Colitis, Behçet's ; Colon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We performed a retrospective review of double-contrast barium enema examinations of 20 patients with clinically proven Behçet's colitis. Main lesion was ovoid or geographic ulcers with a mean diameter of 2.7 cm. The number of ulcers was single in 15 cases and multiple in five. On six resected specimens, ulcers involved submucosa in three, muscle layer in one, and serosa in two cases with an undermining tendency and transmural inflammation. Aphthous ulcers were present in three cases. Neither perforation nor fistula was demonstrated. In all 20 patients, the ulcer was localized in the ileocecal area, with extension to the ascending colon in seven. Skip lesions were observed in the transverse colon and descending colon in three cases. Destruction of surrounding mucosa resulted in cecal contraction in 19 cases, widening of the ileocecal valve in 19, and fold thickening in the terminal ileum in 12. Six cases (30%) manifested as ileocecal mass accompanied by ulcer, fold thickening, and adjacent mucosal deformity. The appendix was visualized in only three (20%) of the 15 patients with no history of appendectomy. On follow-up study of 15 cases, the ulcers disappeared or decreased in size in 13 cases (86%) and the mucosal deformity was not improved in all cases. On the basis of our results, we believe that the characteristic findings of colitis in Behçet's disease in barium enema examination are ovoid or geographic, relatively large, and deep ulcerations with persistent surrounding deformity which tend to localize in the ileocecal area.
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