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  • 1
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Lymphoma ; brain tumours ; medullary tumours ; radiation therapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A retrospective analysis of 23 non-immune compromised patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is reported. The patients consist of 14 males and 9 females and the median age is 50 years. Most patients presented with focal neurological deficits or symptoms of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) due to mass effects around the periventricular area. However, there were four cases of diffuse type, one case of intramedullary tumour, and four cases with rapid disease progression. All the patients underwent histological confirmation by craniotomy (16 cases) or stereotactic biopsy (7 cases). The radiation therapy started after histological diagnosis in all and 6 cases received additional chemotherapy. The median survival after diagnosis of overall patients was 23 months. Six patients are in disease free status at a mean of 35 months follow-up. The uni- and multi-variative risk analysis revealed five favourable factors on survival: (1) age less than 60 years (0.05 〈 p 〈 0.1); (2) pre-operative Karnof-sky performance scale (KPS) ≥ 70 (p 〈 0.05); (3) symptom duration over four weeks (p 〈 0.05); (4) radiation dosage ≥ 5500 cGy (p 〈 0.05); (5) absence of malignant cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (p 〈 0.05). The most frequent site of recurrence was the local area as shown in seven cases out of 11 recurrent cases. But six patients had diffuse recurrence (4 cases), systemic recurrence (2 cases), and drop metastasis (1 case). Although the recurred PCNSL had rapid progression and a grave prognosis, aggressive treatment prolonged the postrecurrence survival time significantly. Our experience suggests that 1) there are various clinical and radiological presentations and progressions of the disease; 2) treatment method should be decided along with the clinical presentation, progression of disease, and prognostic factors; 3) early diagnosis and early detection of recurrence enable the start of definitive treatment when the medical condition is still satisfactory.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Tuberculosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Twenty-six patients with intracranial tuberculosis (Tb) (10 with acute meningitis, 5 with chronic meningitis, 5 with meningitic sequelae and 6 with localized tuberculoma(s) were examined with MR before and after Gd-DTPA enhancement (0.1 mmol/kg), using 2.0T superconducting unit, and the images were retrospectively analyzed and compared with CT scans. Without Gd-DTPA enhancement, the MR images were generally insensitive to detection of active meningeal inflammation and granulomas. The signal intensity of granulomas was usually isointense to gray matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images, whether they were associated with diffuse meningitis or presented as localized tuberculoma(s). A few granulomas showed focal hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Calcifications seen on CT of the meningitic sequelae group usually appeared markedly hypointense on all spin-echo sequences. On Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images, abnormal meningeal enhancement indicating active inflammation was conspicuous, and the granulomas often appeared as conglomerated ring-enhancing nodules, which seems to be characteristic of granulomas. Thin rim enhancement around the suprasellar calcifications were observed in two out of 5 patients with meningitic sequelae. Compared with CT, MR detected a few more ischemic infarcts, hemorrhagic infarcts, meningeal enhancement and granulomas in the acute meningitis group, but missed small calcifications in the basal cisterns well shown on CT in the sequelae group. Otherwise, MR generally matched CT scans. MR imaging appears to be superior to CT in evaluation of active intracranial Tb only if Gd-DTPA is used, while CT is better than MR in evaluating meningitic sequelae with calcification.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Subependymoma ; Ventricular tumor ; Septum pellucidum ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Subependymoma is a rare, benign intraventricular tumour and a case of septum pellucidum origin examined with CT and MR is reported. Well demarcated non-enhancing mass with multiple small intratumoral cysts is demonstrated on CT and MR images. The differential diagnosis from ependymoma has some therapeutic implications but may not be possible by CT or MRI.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Keywords: Gliomatosis cerebri; magnetic resonance image; radiation therapy; prognosis.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary  To clarify clinical features and to elucidate prognostic factors and prognosis, the authors retrospectively analyzed 16 cases of gliomatosis cerebri treated at Seoul National University Hospital between January 1988 and December 1995. Age at diagnosis ranged from 19 to 62 (median 34) years and male to female ratio was 10:6. Most presented with headache or seizure, and the mean duration of symptoms was 12.8 months. A poorly defined diffuse high signal intensity lesion, extending in T2-weighted images for two lobes or more, was the characteristic magnetic resonance (MR) image finding. On postcontrast T1-weighted MR imaging, focal enhancement of the lesion was detected in five cases. All patients underwent histological confirmation by craniotomy (9 cases) or stereotactic biopsy (7 cases). Histologically, all patients had compatible findings of gliomatosis cerebri which are the widespread infiltration of neoplastic glial cells with minimal destruction of pre-existing structures.  After histological diagnosis, external radiation therapy was begun except in one case, who declined this treatment. Fourteen patients completed the whole procedure and received the planned dose (mean 5780 cGy). Median survival time after diagnosis was 38.4 months. In univariate analysis, the Ki-67 labelling index (〉1) showed significant correlation with the length of survival (p=0.006).  It is suggested that 1) gliomatosis cerebri can be diagnosed by a combination of MR imaging findings and histological examination; 2) histological diagnosis and external radiation therapy might be a good treatment modality; 3) the Ki-67 labelling index correlates significantly with survival time.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Photoluminescence (PL) in PbWO4 single crystals doped with Pr3+, Sm3+, and Er3+ ion, which were grown by the Czochralski method, was studied. By investigating the PL for incident radiation with wavelength of 325 nm (He–Cd Laser), the energy levels of the PL centers were found: The PL levels in the Pr doped single crystal are 3Po and 1D2, that in the Sm-doped one is 4G5/2, and those in the Er doped one are 2H11/2, 4S3/2, and 4F9/2. In conclusion, the characteristics of these single crystals are governed solely by those of the rare-earth dopants, not by the lead tungstate. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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