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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We previously reported that dehydroevodiamine·HCl (DHED) has anticholinesterase and antiamnesic activities. To verify the effects of DHED on cognitive deficits further, we tested it on the scopolamine-induced amnesia model of the rat using the passive avoidance and eight-arm radial maze tests. A single (20 mg/kg p.o.) and repeated (10 mg/kg p.o.) administrations of DHED could significantly reverse the latency time shortened by scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) to control level. The impaired spatial working memory induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) was also improved significantly by a single injection (6.25 mg/kg i.p.) and repeated administrations of DHED (10 mg/kg p.o.) in the eight-arm radial maze test. In addition, we examined the effects of DHED on the memory impairment and the histological changes of the brain after unilateral electrolytic lesion of the entorhinal cortex (EC) and middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. The cognitive deficits caused by EC lesion and middle cerebral artery occlusion were improved significantly by repeated administrations of DHED (6.25 mg/kg i.p.) after EC lesion or ischemic insult once a day for 7 days in the passive avoidance test. Histological analysis showed that the neuronal loss in the DHED-treated group was notably reduced in the hippocampal area (CA1) of ischemic rats and in the dentate gyrus and hippocampal area (CA1 and CA3) of EC-lesioned rats compared with the nontreated group. The infarction area was decreased significantly by a single administration of DHED (6.25 mg/kg i.p.) 30 min before ischemic insult for 6 h. These results suggest that DHED might be an effective drug for not only the Alzheimer’s disease type, but also the vascular type of dementia.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 3-Hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite, is known to have toxic effects in brain. However, the molecular mechanism of the toxicity has not been well identified. In this study, we investigated the involvement of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the 3-HK-induced neuronal cell damage. Our results showed that 3-HK induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and ERK phosphorylation occurred during cell death. Inhibition of ERK activation using PD98059 considerably increased cell death. Furthermore, cell death was preceded by mitochondrial malfunction including collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol. Interestingly, inhibition of ERK dramatically increased mitochondrial malfunction, and enhanced caspase activation, resulting in enhanced neuronal cell death. Thus, our results show that ERK plays a protective role by maintaining mitochondrial function and regulating caspase activity under conditions of cellular stress.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: One of the pathophysiological features of Alzheimer's disease is astrocytosis around senile plaques. Reactive astrocytes may produce proinflammatory mediators, nitric oxide, and subsequent reactive oxygen intermediates such as peroxynitrites. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of the C-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein (CT-APP), which is another constituent of amyloid senile plaque and an abnormal product of APP metabolism, as an inducer of astrocytosis. We report that 100 nm recombinant C-terminal 105 amino acid fragment (CT105) of APP induced astrocytosis morphologically and immunologically. CT105 exposure resulted in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways as well as transcription factor NF-κB. Pretreatment with PD098059 and/or SB203580 decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. But inhibitors of NF-κB activation did not affect MAPKs activation whereas they abolished NO production and attenuated astrocytosis. Furthermore, conditioned media derived from CT105-treated astrocytes enhanced neurotoxicity and pretreatment with NO and peroxynitrite scavengers attenuated its toxicity. These suggest that CT-APP may participate in Alzheimer's pathogenesis through MAPKs- and NF-κB-dependent astrocytosis and iNOS induction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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