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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Rat brain synaptic vesicles exhibit ATP-dependent uptake of γ-[3H]amino-n-butyric acid ([3H]GABA) and l-[3H]glutamate. After hypotonic shock, the highest specific activities of uptake of both l-glutamate and GABA were recovered in the 0.4 M fraction of a sucrose gradient. The uptakes of l-glutamate and GABA were inhibited by similar, but not identical, concentrations of the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and the ionophores nigericin and gramicidin, but they were not inhibited by the K+ carrier valinomycin. N, N′-Dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide and N-ethylmaleimide, Mg2+-ATPase inhibitors, inhibited the GABA and L-glutamate uptakes similarly. Low concentrations of CI− stimulated the vesicular uptake of l-glutamate but not that of GABA. The uptakes of both l-glutamate and GABA were inhibited by high concentrations of CI−. These results indicate that the vesicular GABA and l-glutamate uptakes are driven by an electrochemical proton gradient generated by a similar Mg2+-ATPase. The vesicular uptake mechanisms are discussed in relation to other vesicle uptake systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 54 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Glycine was taken up by a synaptic vesicle fraction from spinal cord in a Mg-ATP-dependent manner. The accumulation of glycine was inhibited by carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and nigericin, agents known to destroy the proton gradient across the vesicle membrane. Vesicular uptake of glycine was clearly different from synaptosomal uptake, with respect to both the affinity constant and the effect of Na+, ATP, CCCP, and temperature. Oligomycin and strychnine did not inhibit the vesicular uptake, showing that neither mitochondrial H+-ATPase nor binding to strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors was involved. It is suggested that the vesicular uptake of glycine is driven by a proton gradient generated by a Mg2+-ATPase. A low concentration of Cl- had little effect on the uptake of glycine, whereas the uptake of glutamate in the same experiment was highly stimulated. High concentrations of γ-amino-n-butyric acid and β-alanine inhibited vesicular glycine uptake, but glutamate did not. Accumulation of glycine was found to be fourfold higher in a spinal cord synaptic vesicle fraction than in a vesicle fraction from cerebral cortex.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Development ; vesicular uptake ; brain ; glutamate ; GABA ; glycine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The ontogeny of the uptake of glutamate, GABA and glycine into synaptic vesicles isolated from rat brain has been investigated. The vesicular uptake of the three amino acids increased with developmental age in parallel with synaptogenesis, indicating a functional role of uptake of the amino acids by synaptic vesicles in the nerve terminals. Uptake of the amino acids by plasma membrane particles (synaptosomes) in brain homogenate showed a somewhat different developmental profile. The uptake of glutamate increased markedly with developmental time, while the uptake of GABA showed only a slight increase. Uptake of glycine by plasma membrane particles was very low and therefore not registered. The observed developmental increase in uptake of glycine by synaptic vesicles isolated from brain, supports previous reports indicating that glycine can be taken up by vesicles from non-glycine terminals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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