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  • 1
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: staphylococcal nuclease ; nonproductive substrate binding to ; subsites of ; active site mutants of ; oligonucleotide binding to ; Ca2+ binding to ; Mn2+ binding to ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: By a combination of NMR docking and model building, the substrate binding site on staphylococcal nuclease was found to accommodate a trinucleotide and to consist of three subsites, each interacting with a single nucleotidyl unit of DNA. Binding of the essential Ca2+ activator and substrate cleavage occur between subsites 1 and 2. Hence, catalytically productive binding would span subsites 1 and 2 while nonproductive binding would span subsites 2 and 3. Lys-49 is near subsite 1, and Lys-84 and Tyr-115 interact with substrates at sub site 3 [Weber, D. J., Gittis, A. G., Mullen, G. P., Abeygunawardana, C., Lattman, E. E., Mildvan, A. S. Proteins 13:275-287, 1992]. The proposed locations of these subsites were independently tested by the effects of the K49A, K84A, and Y115A mutations of staphylococcal nuclease on the binding of Mn2+, Ca2+, and the dinucleotide and trinucleotide substrates, 5′-pdTdA, dTdA, and dTdAdG. These three mutants have previously been shown to be fully active and to have CD and 2D NMR spectra very similar to those of the wild-type enzyme (Chuang, W.-J., Weber, D. J., Gittis, A. G., Mildvan, A. S. Proteins 17:36-48, 1993). All three mutant enzymes and their pdTdA and dTdA complexes (but not their dTdAdG complex) bind Mn2+ and Ca2+ more weakly than the wild-type enzyme by factors ranging from 2 to 11. The presence of a terminal phosphate as in 5′-pdTdA raises the affinity of the substrate for staphylococcal nuclease and its three mutants by two orders of magnitude and for the corresponding enzyme-metal complexes by three to four orders of magnitude, suggesting that the terminal phosphate is coordinated by the enzyme-bound divalent cation. Such complexation would result in the nonproductive binding of 5′-pdTdA at subsites 2 and 3. Accordingly, the K84A and Y115A mutations significantly weaken the binding of 5′-pdTdA and its metal to staphylococcal nuclease by factors of 2.2 to 37.8, while the K49A mutation has much smaller or no effect. Such nonproductive binding explains the low activity of staphylococcal nuclease with small substrates, especially those With a terminal phosphate. Similarly, the K84A and Y115A mutations weaken the binding of dTdA and its metal complexes to the enzyme by factors of 3.4 to 13.1 while the K49A mutation has smaller effects indicating significant nonproductive binding of dTdA. The trinucleotide dTdAdG binds more tightly to wild-type and mutant staphylococcal nuclease and to its metal complexes than does the dinucleotide dTdA by factors of 2.4 to 12.2, reflecting the occupancy of an additional subsite. Predominantly productive binding of dTdAdG is indicated by the 1.7- to 8.3-fold lower affinities of the K49A, K84A, and Y115A mutants for the trinucleotide and its metal complexes. The largest effects on dTdAdG binding are seen with the Y115A mutation presumably reflecting the dual role of Tyr-115 both in donating a hydrogen bond to a phosphodiester oxygen between subsites 2 and 3 and in stacking onto the guanine base at subsite 3. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: staphylococcal nuclease ; mutants of ; lattice artifactsd ; dissociation constants of 3′,5′-pdTp ; subdomains of ; Ca2+ binding to ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the X-ray structure of the staphylococcal nuclease-Ca2+ -3′,5′-pdTp complex, the conformation of the inhibitor 3′,5′-pdTp is distroteed Lys-70* and Lys-71* from an adjacent molecule of staphylococcal nuclease (Loll, P.J., Lattman, E.E. Proteins 5 : 183-201, 1989). In order to correct this crystal packing problem, the solution conformation of enzyme-bound 3′,5′-pdTp in the staphylococcal nuclease-metal-pdTp Complex determined by NMR methods was docked into the X-ray structure of the enzyme [Weber, D. J., Serpersu, E. H., Gittis, A. G., Lattman, E. E., Mildvan, A. S. (preceding paper)]. In the NMR-docked structure, the 5′-phophate of 3′,5′-pdTp overlaps with that in the X-ray Structure. However the 3′-phosphate accepts a hydrogen bond from Lys-49 (2.89Å) rather than from Lys-84 (8.63 Å), and N3 of thymine donates a hydrogen bond to the OH of Tyr-115 (3.16 Å) which does not occur in the X-ray structure (5.28 Å). These interactions have been tested by binding studies of 3′,5′-pdTp, Ca2+, and Mn2+ to the K49A, K84A, and Y115A mutants of staphylococcal nuclease using water proton relaxation rate and EPR methods. Each mutant was fully active and structurally intact, as found by CD and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, but bound Ca2+ 9.1- to 9.9-fold more weakly than the wild-type enzyme. While thye K84A mutation did not significantly weaken 3′,5′-pdTp binding to the enzyme (1.5 ± 0.7 fold), the K49A mutation weakened 3′,5′-pdTp binding to the enzyme by the factor of 4.4 ± 1.8-fold. Similarly, the Y115A mutation weakened 3′,5′-pdTp binding to the enzyme 3.6 ± 1.6-fold. Comparable weakening effects of these mutations were found on the binding of Ca2+-3′,5′-pdTp. These results are more readily explained by the NMR-docked structure of staphylococcal nuclease-metal-3′,5′-pdTp than by the X-ray structure. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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