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  • 1
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We investigated the microglial response to progressive dopamine neuron degeneration using in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and postmortem analyses in a Parkinson's disease (PD) rat model induced by unilateral (right side) intrastriatal administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Degeneration of the dopamine system was monitored by PET imaging of presynaptic dopamine transporters using a specific ligand 11C-CFT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane). Binding of 11C-CFT was markedly reduced in the striatum indicating dopaminergic degeneration. Parallel PET studies of 11C-PK11195 (1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3 isoquinoline carboxamide) (specific ligand for activated microglia) showed increased binding in the striatum and substantia nigra indicative of a microglial response. Postmortem immunohistochemical analyses were performed with antibodies against CR3 for microglia/macrophage activation. Using a qualitative postmortem index for microglial activation we found an initially focal, then widespread microglial response at striatal and nigral levels at 4 weeks postlesion. These data support the hypothesis that inflammation is a significant component of progressive dopaminergic degeneration that can be monitored by PET imaging.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In einer Vergleichsstudie wurden Patienten mit komplizierter Zystitis oder Infektionen des oberen Harntraktes mit Rufloxacin einmal täglich oder Ofloxacin zweimal täglich behandelt. Nach Randomisierung erhielten 83 Patienten Rufloxacin, wobei am ersten Tag 400 mg, an allen weiteren Tagen 200 mg als Einzeldosis einmal täglich verabreicht wurden. 80 Patienten nahmen zweimal täglich 300 mg Ofloxacin ein. Die Behandlungsdauer betrug für beide orale Medikamente im Mittel acht Tage. Die Elimination der Erreger gelang unter Rufloxacin in 90% und unter Ofloxacin in 81% der Fälle. Die Hälfte der Therapieversager war mit Erregern verminderter Chinolonempfindlichkeit oder mit resistenten Keimen assoziiert. Bei der Nachunterunsuchung, die zwei Wochen im Anschluß an die Behandlung erfolgte, hatte sich bei den mit Rufloxacin behandelten Patienten kein Rezidiv eingestellt. Nach Ofloxacin lag die Rezidivrate bei 17%. Leichte Nebenwirkungen traten bei 12 beziehungsweise 13 Patienten der entsprechenden Gruppen auf. Die Einmal-Tages-Gabe von Rufloxacin erwies sich bei der Behandlung der komplizierten Zystitis oder von Infektionen der oberen Harnwege als ebenso wirksam wie Ofloxacin zweimal täglich.
    Notes: Summary The efficacy and safety of rufloxacin once daily was compared with that of ofloxacin b.i.d. for therapy of complicated cystitis and upper urinary tract infections. Eighty-three patients were randomly assigned to receive rufloxacin as a loading dose of 400 mg on the first day, followed by 200 mg s.i.d., and 80 received ofloxacin 300 mg b.i.d. Both agents were administered orally for a median duration of eight days. Bacterial elimination rates after treatment were 90% for rufloxacin and 81% for ofloxacin. Half of the treatment failures occurred in patients with infections caused by uropathogens that became either less sensitive or resistant to the quinolones being studied. At a two-week follow-up, recurrences had not occurred in any of the rufloxacin patients and had occurred in 17% of the ofloxacin patients. Minor adverse reactions were reported by 12 and 13 patients, respectively. Rufloxacin once daily is as effective as ofloxacin b.i.d. for the treatment of complicated cystitis and upper urinary tract infections.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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