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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]) ; Conjunctival provocation test ; Deflazacort ; early phase reaction ; inflammatory response ; late phase reaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The protective effects of deflazacort, (a new heterocyclic glucocorticoid and derivative of prednisolone, with calcium and glucose-sparing effects) on the inflammatory reaction following an allergen-specific conjunctival provocation test (CPT) were assessed in a doubleblind study, in 24 patients suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis due toParietaria judaica. After an initial screening CPT, patients were randomized to four treatment groups, to receive deflazacort, 6, 30 or 60 mg, once daily or placebo, for 3 days, during the low-pollen season. Clinical evaluations (itching, hyperaemia, lacrimation and eyelid swelling), cytological assessment (number of inflammatory cells, i. e. neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes, sampled by conjunctival scraping) and immunocytochemical evaluation of CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]) expression on epithelial cells were performed after CPT, at baseline, after 30 minutes (early-phase reaction [EPR]) and after 6 and 24 hours (late-phase reaction [LPR]), before and after treatment. Neither the nature or severity of clinical events nor the total number of inflammatory cells during the EPR changed during treatment with deflazacort. The severity of the clinical events during the LPR were significantly reduced by deflazacort, 30 and 60 mg/dayP 〈 0.01) compared to the placebo-treated group. The total number of inflammatory cells during the LPR was also significantly reduced by deflazacort, 30 and 60 mg/ day (P 〈 0.01) compared to the placebo-treated group. CD54 expression was significantly reduced by deflazacort, 30 and 60 mg/day both during the EPR (P 〈 0.01) and LPR (P 〈 0.01) compared to the placebo-treated group. Deflazacort, 6 mg/day did not significantly alter clinical, cellular or immunocytochemical variables compared to the placebo-treated group. This study shows that deflazacort has a highly protective effect on clinical and cellular LPR events induced by specific CPT. In addition, deflazacort markedly reduces CD54 expression on conjunctival epithelium during both the EPR and LPR.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Ciprandi G, Tosca MA, Fasce L, Canonica GW. Allergen-specific conjunctival challenge in children with allergic asthma: a clinical tool.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Allergy 47 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  Allergic rhinitis is traditionally subdivided into seasonal (SAR) and perennial (PAR), although the new definitions of persistent and intermittent were recently proposed. We assessed the validity of the traditional classification in a large group of subjects suffering from allergic rhinitis alone.Methods:  Young males referred to a Navy Military Hospital for routine fitness visit, and reporting symptoms of rhinitis alone were selected. According to the sensitization they were subdivided into (i) sensitized to pollens only (seasonal, SAR), (ii) to perennial allergens only (perennial, PAR) and (iii) to both (mixed, MAR). Spirometry, methacholine challenge, severity and characteristics of symptoms were assessed in all participants.Results:  Of 19 325 subjects, 2347 had allergic rhinitis. Seventy-two percent of the subjects had MAR, 17% SAR and 11% PAR. Ocular involvement and irritative symptoms were more frequent in SAR (P 〈 0.03), whereas obstruction was predominant in PAR (P 〈 0.01). Nasal symptoms varied according to the period of the year in SAR (P 〈 0.01) and PAR (P 〈 0.03). An overt bronchial obstruction was detected in 12% of PAR patients, in 7.8% of MAR, and in 4.2% of SAR. forced expiratory volume/1 s was significantly lower during season in SAR patients only (P 〈 0.05). The FEF25–75 was impaired in 22.5% MAR patients, 21% PAR, and 14% SAR, with a seasonal change in SAR (P 〈 0.05) and PAR (P 〈 0.001). Bronchial hyperreactivity was present in 82.2% of PAR, 73.6% of MAR, and 53.5% of SAR, with a seasonal change in SAR (P 〈 0.001) and MAR (P 〈 0.05).Conclusions:  This study provides evidence that up to 80% of allergic rhinitics have a mixed form, and SAR and PAR definitions are poorly adherent to real life. Lung involvement is frequent in patients reporting nose symptoms alone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Allergy 60 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing
    Allergy 59 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Nonallergic perennial rhinitis (also commonly referred to as vasomotor rhinitis) is a chronic non-IgE-mediated condition that is characterized by symptoms which are similar to those seen in allergic rhinitis, but which persist for over nine months each year. Although treatment of vasomotor rhinitis involves the use of either intranasal corticosteroids or antihistamines, the corticosteroids are generally not effective in treatment of all the symptoms of vasomotor rhinitis and have generally been shown to be effective in patients with eosinophilia. With the exception of azelastine, the only topical antihistamine to be approved by the FDA for the treatment of nonallergic rhinitis, the antihistamines have also produced inconsistent results. While clinical studies of azelastine have demonstrated that this drug is highly efficacious in the treatment of all the symptoms of vasomotor rhinitis, mechanistic studies have demonstrated that azelastine has potent anti-inflammatory effects (in particular attenuation of the expression and synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leukotrienes, and cell adhesion molecules), which are likely to contribute to its clinical efficacy. Furthermore, pharamacokinetic studies have suggested that since azelastine has a more rapid onset of action, compared to most other antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids, then azelastine nasal spray may be considered as primary therapy for patients with symptoms of both allergic and/or vasomotor (nonallergic perennial) rhinitis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of asthma have been shown to produce marked reductions in the number of inflammatory cells (mainly mast cells and eosinophils) and their products at bronchial level (such as cytokines). Recently, it has been demonstrated that epithelial cells express ICAM-1/CD54 in allergic patients both during natural allergen exposure and after allergen challenge. We have previously demonstrated that deflazacort (a systemic steroid) reduces the expression of ICAM-1 on conjunctival epithelial cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects exerted by budesonide on adhesion molecule expression by a human epithelial cell line (lung carcinoma: DM) and on soluble ICAM-1. Budesonide was added at concentrations corresponding to 10−8, 10−7, and 10−6 mol/1 in cultured epithelial cells, either in the absence of any stimulus or in the presence of interferon-gamma (IFN-y) at 500 U/ml. After 24 h of incubation, cytofluorometric analysis was performed for ICAM-1 and CD29/VLAP1. The 24–h supernatants of the same cultures were collected and then evaluated for soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1). The results showed that budesonide inhibits ICAM-1 and CD29 basal expression on the cells studied (P〈0.05): budesonide was effective in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, budesonide reduced surface ICAM-1 upregulation induced by IFN-γ at 500 U/ml (p〈0.05). Finally, cell cultures with budesonide showed decreased levels of soluble ICAM-1 in basal condition, but not after IFN-γ stimulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Cetirizine, an antihistamine widely used in the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, also has antiallergic activity. The present study aimed to evaluate cetirizine as a treatment for children with allergic cough due to pollen allergy. This was a parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Twenty children with pollinosis were enrolled: they were subdivided into two groups receiving a 1-month treatment during the pollen season. The following variables were monitored: 1) clinical symptoms and respiratory data (spirometry and PEF) evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study by allergists and by a daily diary card, and 2) pollen count. This study shows that cetirizine treatment reduces cough intensity (P 〈 0.05) and frequency (p 〈 0.01). In conclusion, cetirizine does clinically improve cough due to pollen allergy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Allergy 52 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Pharmacological treatment of allergic conjunctivitis may be based on the therapeutic use of topical steroids; however, because of the side effects, steroids are not clinically suitable in either prolonged treatment, or pollinosis. Because non-steroidal topical drugs are suitable in prolonged treatment, this single-blind study evaluated the following topical drugs: cromoglycate plus chlorphenamine, cromoglycate plus tetryzolin and imidazolin plus nafazolin, compared with placebo. The results confirm significant clinical efficacy of these drugs on signs and symptoms compared with placebo. Thus, “non-steroidal” topical drugs should be the preferred choice in prolonged forms of pollen-induced (e.g. Parietaria and/or grasses) conjunctivitis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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