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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The rfbkpO1 gene cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae O1 directs synthesis of the D-galactan I component of the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen. The first two genes in the rfbkpO1cluster encode RrfbkpO1and RfbBKpO1, with predicted sizes of 29.5 or 30.0 kDa and 27.4 kDa, respectively. RfbBKpO1 contains a consensus ATP-binding domain and shares homology with several proteins which function as ATP-binding components of cell surface polysaccharide transporters. RfbAKpO1 is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with five putative membrane-spanning domains and its transmembrane topology was confirmed by TnphoA mutagenesis. The hydropathy plot of RfbAKpO1 resembles KpsM, the transcytoplasmic membrane component of the capsular polysaccharide transporter from Escherichia coli K-1 and K-5. These relationships suggest that RfbAKpO1 and RfbBKpO1 belong to a family of two-component ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters. E. coli K-12 containing a plasmid carrying an rfbKpO1 gene cluster deleted in rfbAKpO1 and rfbBKpO1 expresses rough lipopolysaccharide molecules on its surface and accumulates cytoplasmic O-antigen. When RfbAKpO1 and RfbBKpO1 are supplied in trans by a compatible plasmid, O-polysaccharide transport is restored and smooth D-galactan l-substituted lipopolysaccharide is produced. RfbAKpO1 and RfbBKpO1 are, therefore, proposed to constitute a system required for transport of D-galactan I across the cytoplasmic membrane, where RfbAKpO1 represents the membrane-spanning translocator and RfbBKpO1 couples the energy of ATP hydrolysis to the transport process.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Many types of bacteria produce extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). Some are secreted polymers and show only limited association with the cell surface, whereas others are firmly attached to the cell surface and form a discrete structural layer, the capsule, which envelopes the cell and ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The expression of the Escherichia coli K5 (group II) capsular polysaccharide requires the rfaH gene. By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) it was possible to demonstrate that RfaH increases the transcription of region 2 genes by readthrough transcription from the region 3 promoter. A mutation in the rfaH gene reduced this readthrough transcription from the region 3 promoter by 10-fold as measured by quantitative RT-PCR. The region 3 promoter was mapped to 741 bp 5′ of the initiation codon of the kpsM gene. Deletion and insertion mutagenesis of the JUMPstart sequence, which is 28 bp 5′ of kpsM and is conserved upstream of RfaH-regulated operons and other polysaccharide biosynthesis genes, confirmed that this sequence was required for expression of the K5 antigen and for the antitermination activity of RfaH. The JUMPstart sequence could cause RfaH-dependent antitermination at other Rho-dependent terminators, suggesting that the JUMPstart sequence may function in a manner analogous to a λnut site. On the basis of these results we propose a model by which RfaH regulates expression of E. coli group II capsule gene clusters by allowing readthrough transcription to proceed from region 3 into region 2 and that sequences within the JUMPstart sequence are essential for this process.
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