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  • 1
    Abstract: The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early proofs-of-concept, and some design considerations for the Human Cell Atlas, including a commitment to open data, code, and community.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29206104
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Key words Tunnel widening ; Semitendinosis and gracilis graft ; Bone-patella tendon-bone graft
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract We report a prospective series evaluating the incidence and degree of tunnel widening in a well-matched series of patients receiving a hamstring or patella tendon graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. We correlated tunnel widening with clinical factors, knee scores, KT-1000 and isokinetic muscle strength to determine the clinical significance of this finding. Seventy-three patients at least 12 months post-ACL reconstruction were evaluated. Thirty-eight patients had received a doubled semitendinous and gracilis graft and 35 a bone-patella tendon-bone graft. All patients underwent a similar endoscopic procedure and accelerated postoperative rehabilitation. Tunnel widening was determined using standardized anteroposterior (AP) and lateral X-rays adjusted for magnification. A limited series of MRIs was performed to validate these measurements. There was a significant difference in the degree of tunnel widening between the two groups. The mean increase in femoral tunnel area in the hamstring group was 100.4% compared with a decrease of 25% in the patella tendon group (P = 〈 0.0001). In the tibial tunnel the mean increase in the hamstring group was 73.9% compared with a decrease of 2.1% in the patella tendon group (P = 〈 0.0001). The MRIs validated the plain film measurements. Tunnel widening did not correlate with the clinical findings, knee scores, KT-1000 or isokinetic muscle strength. Tunnel widening is marked in the hamstring group. Tunnel widening does not correlate with instability or a poor clinical outcome in the short term. The long-term implications of this finding are still to be determined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: Messenger RNA encodes cellular function and phenotype. In the context of human cancer, it defines the identities of malignant cells and the diversity of tumor tissue. We studied 72,501 single-cell transcriptomes of human renal tumors and normal tissue from fetal, pediatric, and adult kidneys. We matched childhood Wilms tumor with specific fetal cell types, thus providing evidence for the hypothesis that Wilms tumor cells are aberrant fetal cells. In adult renal cell carcinoma, we identified a canonical cancer transcriptome that matched a little-known subtype of proximal convoluted tubular cell. Analyses of the tumor composition defined cancer-associated normal cells and delineated a complex vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling circuit. Our findings reveal the precise cellular identities and compositions of human kidney tumors.
    Keywords: Development, Medicine, Diseases
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-10-19
    Description: Genetic mutations cause primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) that predispose to infections. Here, we describe activated PI3K-delta syndrome (APDS), a PID associated with a dominant gain-of-function mutation in which lysine replaced glutamic acid at residue 1021 (E1021K) in the p110delta protein, the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kdelta), encoded by the PIK3CD gene. We found E1021K in 17 patients from seven unrelated families, but not among 3346 healthy subjects. APDS was characterized by recurrent respiratory infections, progressive airway damage, lymphopenia, increased circulating transitional B cells, increased immunoglobulin M, and reduced immunoglobulin G2 levels in serum and impaired vaccine responses. The E1021K mutation enhanced membrane association and kinase activity of p110delta. Patient-derived lymphocytes had increased levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphorylated AKT protein and were prone to activation-induced cell death. Selective p110delta inhibitors IC87114 and GS-1101 reduced the activity of the mutant enzyme in vitro, which suggested a therapeutic approach for patients with APDS.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3930011/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3930011/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Angulo, Ivan -- Vadas, Oscar -- Garcon, Fabien -- Banham-Hall, Edward -- Plagnol, Vincent -- Leahy, Timothy R -- Baxendale, Helen -- Coulter, Tanya -- Curtis, James -- Wu, Changxin -- Blake-Palmer, Katherine -- Perisic, Olga -- Smyth, Deborah -- Maes, Mailis -- Fiddler, Christine -- Juss, Jatinder -- Cilliers, Deirdre -- Markelj, Gasper -- Chandra, Anita -- Farmer, George -- Kielkowska, Anna -- Clark, Jonathan -- Kracker, Sven -- Debre, Marianne -- Picard, Capucine -- Pellier, Isabelle -- Jabado, Nada -- Morris, James A -- Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela -- Fischer, Alain -- Stephens, Len -- Hawkins, Phillip -- Barrett, Jeffrey C -- Abinun, Mario -- Clatworthy, Menna -- Durandy, Anne -- Doffinger, Rainer -- Chilvers, Edwin R -- Cant, Andrew J -- Kumararatne, Dinakantha -- Okkenhaug, Klaus -- Williams, Roger L -- Condliffe, Alison -- Nejentsev, Sergey -- 095198/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 095198/Z/10/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 095691/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- BB/J004456/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U105184308/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- U105184308/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Nov 15;342(6160):866-71. doi: 10.1126/science.1243292. Epub 2013 Oct 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24136356" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Humans ; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/*genetics/immunology/*pathology ; Lymphocytes/immunology ; Mutation ; Pedigree ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/*genetics ; Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism ; Respiratory Tract Infections/*genetics/immunology/*pathology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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