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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: topical ; powder ; tolnaftate ; dissolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A dissolution apparatus was constructed to evaluate tolnaftate release from topical powders. It consisted of a mesh unit to support the powder, a receptor phase, and a sink. This report describes three parameters that were used to evaluate this technique. First, three different areas of contact were examined using 52-, 41-, or 30-µm mesh supports. Second, the effect of the pH on the dissolution rate was studied, using aqueous buffers of pH 3, 5, 7, or 8 as the receptor phase. Finally, different topical powder formulations containing different amounts of tolnaftate were tested. The results obtained showed that the percentage of tolnaftate released from topical powders increased at low pH levels and with the larger mesh support. The percentage released was greater in a starch–talc preparation than in a talc-only preparation. The mesh was replaced by a semipermeable membrane (2.5- to 4 nm pore size) to function as an in vitro model for intradermal diffusion. The results showed that a cream initially released more drug than powder formulations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: dissolution ; chewing gum ; phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride ; in vitro-in vivo correlation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A novel dissolution apparatus was developed for medicated chewing gum products. A prototype gum product containing phenylpropa-nolamine hydrochloride (PPA) was used to evaluate the apparatus. The apparatus consists of a conical Teflon base and a rotating, ribbed Teflon plunger suspended in a dissolution vessel. Parameters evaluated were rotation speed, plunger frequency, medium volume, medium type, medium sampling location, number of plunger ribs, and number of gum pieces. Samples were taken over a 20-min period and samples were analyzed by HPLC. Cumulative percentage re-leased-versus-time profiles were obtained for each parameter evaluated. Statistical analysis of the gum product indicated that the only significant differences occurred at the lowest rotation speed and lowest plunger frequencies. A Level A correlation was found between the in vitro release profile for the 20-rpm and 30-cycles/min plunger frequency and the in vivo chew-out study.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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