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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; FOLLOW-UP ; DISEASE ; RISK ; ACTIVATION ; ASSOCIATION ; LYMPHOMA ; AGE ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; smoking ; DOSE-RESPONSE ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; ALCOHOL ; SMOKERS ; EUROPE ; INTERVIEW ; Hodgkin's lymphoma ; DRINKING ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; RE ; alcohol drinking ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; NEVER SMOKERS ; odds ratio ; HEMATOLYMPHOPOIETIC MALIGNANCIES ; STERNBERG CELLS
    Abstract: We analysed the effects of tobacco and alcohol in the aetiology of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), based on 340 cases and 2465 controls enrolled in Spain, France, Italy, Germany, Ireland and Czech Republic, between 1998 and 2004. Current smokers showed a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) of HL of 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.87). Analyses were also conducted separately for subjects younger than 35 years (179 cases) and for older subjects (161 cases). For subjects below age 35, no association was observed between tobacco and HL, whereas for older subjects, ever-smokers experienced a doubled risk of HL as compared to never smokers and the OR of HL for current smoking was 2.35 (95% CI = 1.52-3.61), with suggestion of a dose response relationship. A protective effect of alcohol was observed in both age groups. The OR for ever-regular drinking was 0.58 (95% CI = 0.38-0.89) for younger subjects and 0.50 (95% CI = 0.34-0.74) for older subjects. There was no evidence of interaction between tobacco and alcohol. Our results are consistent with previous studies, suggesting a protective effect of alcohol on HL. An effect of tobacco was suggested for HL occurring in middle and late age, although this finding might have occurred by chance
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16819547
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; Germany ; neoplasms ; DIAGNOSIS ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; BREAST ; LYMPHOMA ; NUMBER ; CLINICAL-TRIALS ; risk factors ; case-control studies ; INHIBITORS ; case-control study ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; DRUGS ; RISK-FACTOR ; PRAVASTATIN ; PROTEIN GERANYLGERANYLATION
    Abstract: Background: Statins, drugs used to treat dyslipidemia, may have anticancer properties. We have evaluated lymphoma risk associated with regular statin use in an international case-control study. Methods: This case-control study included 2,362 cases of incident B- and T-cell lymphoma from Czech Republic, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Spain and 2,206 hospital or population controls. Information on drug use, diagnosis at admission (for hospital controls), and putative risk factors for lymphoma was collected with personal interviews. Hospital controls admitted for diseases possibly entailing use of statins were excluded from the analysis. Results: The odds ratio for regular statin use was 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.84); all major lymphoma subtypes showed similarly decreased risks. Decreased risks were observed in all centers. Duration of statin use was not associated with a greater reduction in the risk of lymphoma. Use of other lipid lowering drugs, such as fibrates, did not significantly modify the risk of lymphoma (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.27). Conclusion: Statin use was associated with an important reduction in lymphoma risk, adding to the growing evidence of anticancer properties of this group of drugs. These results are reassuring for the increasing number of patients taking statins on a regular basis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16702371
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; human ; neoplasms ; RISK ; TIME ; ASSOCIATION ; LYMPHOMA ; MALIGNANCIES ; WOMEN ; MEN ; leukemia ; cancer risk ; CARCINOGENS ; hair dyes ; case-control studies ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; MALIGNANCY ; PRODUCTS ; HUMAN CANCER ; INCREASE ; INTERVAL ; odds ratio ; population-based ; CANCER-RISK ; lymphatic system
    Abstract: Hair dyes have been evaluated as possibly being mutagenic and carcinogenic in animals. Studies of the association between human cancer risk and use of hair dyes have yielded inconsistent results. The authors evaluated the risk of lymphoid malignancies associated with personal use of hair dyes. The analysis included 2,302 incident cases of lymphoid neoplasms and 2,417 hospital- or population-based controls from the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Spain (1998-2003). Use of hair dyes was reported by 74% of women and 7% of men. Lymphoma risk among dye users was significantly increased by 19% in comparison with never use (odds ratio (OR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.41) and by 26% among persons who used hair dyes 12 or more times per year (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.60; p for linear trend = 0.414). Lymphoma risk was significantly higher among persons who had started coloring their hair before 1980 (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.72) and persons who had used hair dyes only before 1980 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.40). Personal use of hair dyes is associated with a moderate increase in lymphoma risk, particularly among women and persons who used dyes before 1980. Specific compounds associated with this risk remain to be elucidated
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16731576
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; neoplasms ; POLYMORPHISMS ; UNITED-STATES ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; SAN-FRANCISCO ; AGGREGATION ; FRANCISCO BAY AREA ; CONNECTICUT WOMEN ; MIGRANTS
    Abstract: A role for genetic susceptibility in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is supported by the accumulating evidence of common genetic variations altering NHL risk. However, the pattern of NHL heritability remains poorly understood. We conducted a pooled analysis of 10 211 NHL cases and 11905 controls from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) to evaluate NHL risk among those with hematopoietic malignancies in first-degree relatives. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of NHL and its subtypes were estimated from unconditional logistic regression models with adjustment for confounders. NHL risk was elevated for individuals who reported first-degree relatives with NHL (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-1.9), Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.6; 95% Cl = 1.1-2.3), and leukemia (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2-2.7). Risk was highest among individuals who reported a brother with NHL (OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.6-4.8) and was consistent for all NHL subtypes evaluated. If a first-degree relative had Hodgkin lymphoma, NHL risk was highest if the relative was a parent (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.0-2.9). If a first-degree relative had leukemia, NHL risk was highest among women who reported a sister with leukemia (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.6-5.6). The pattern of NHL heritability appeared to be uniform across NHL subtypes, but risk patterns differed by specific hematopoietic malignancies and the sex of the relative, revealing critical clues to disease etiology.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17185468
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  • 5
    Keywords: Germany ; neoplasms ; SYSTEM ; RISK ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; LYMPHOMA ; MALIGNANCIES ; NUMBER ; case-control studies ; CHILDREN ; PROJECT ; ATOPY ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; MALIGNANCY ; ONCOLOGY ; DISORDERS ; case control study ; case-control study ; HAY-FEVER ; HYGIENE HYPOTHESIS ; RE ; SIBLINGS ; DETERMINANTS ; INCREASE ; allergy ; IMMUNE-SYSTEM ; case control studies ; BIRTH-ORDER ; birth order ; cancer epidemiology ; family size ; FAMILY-SIZE ; FRANCISCO BAY AREA ; HUMAN-MILK ; MALIGNANT-LYMPHOMAS
    Abstract: Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies of the immune system. Recent studies suggest that immunological conditions which are modulated by lifestyle-dependent environmental determinants might affect lymphoma risk. We used data from Epilymph, a European multi-centric case-control study with 2480 cases and 2540 controls, to analyse the relationship between lifestyle-dependent immunological determinants and risk of lymphomas. We found an inverse relationship between risk of lymphoma and allergies, mainly respiratory (OR = 0.86, CI = 0.89-1.01) and food allergies (OR = 0.67, CI = 0.52-0.85), a slightly elevated lymphoma risk for first-born children (OR = 1.17, CI = 0.99-1.39) and only children (OR = 1.10, CI = 0.86-1.39). The inverse relationship between atopic disorders and risk of lymphomas is consistent with earlier observations. Our findings on birth order and lymphoma increase the inconsistency of findings across studies and suggest a critical reappraisal of potential underlying mechanisms. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17481729
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; neoplasms ; DIAGNOSIS ; POPULATION ; RISK ; DISTINCT ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; PATIENT ; RESPONSES ; INFECTION ; SERA ; ANTIGEN ; ANTIGENS ; T-CELL ; antibodies ; antibody ; ENTRY ; virus ; LYMPHOMA ; MALIGNANCIES ; PATTERNS ; AGE ; COUNTRIES ; DIVERSITY ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; case-control studies ; ANTIBODY-RESPONSES ; EPITOPE ; EPITOPES ; SERIES ; IMBALANCES ; CANCER PATIENTS ; EPSTEIN-BARR-VIRUS ; HODGKINS-DISEASE ; FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA ; SERUM ; ELISA ; Epstein-Barr virus ; MALIGNANCY ; ONCOLOGY ; DISORDERS ; case control study ; case-control study ; SUBSET ; PATTERN ; BZLF1 ; VIRUS-INFECTION ; EBV INFECTION ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; analysis ; EVENTS ; leukaemia ; USA ; LOSSES ; EBV ; EVALUATE ; odds ratio ; RISK-FACTOR ; B-CELL ; case control ; CELL LYMPHOMAS ; Epstein Barr virus ; LATENT INFECTION ; MONONUCLEOSIS
    Abstract: Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is consistently associated with distinct lymphoproliferative malignancies and aberrant EBV antibody patterns are found in most EBV cancer patients. We evaluate the detection of an abnormal reactive serological pattern to EBV (ab_EBV) infection and the risk of lymphoma in a multicentric case-control study. Serum samples were collected at study entry from 1,085 incident lymphoma cases from Spain, France, Germany, Czech Republic, Italy and 1,153 age, sex and country matched controls. EBV immunoglobulin G (IgG) serostatus was evaluated through a peptide-based ELISA combining immunodominant epitopes of EBNA1 (BKRF1) and VCA-p18 (BFRF3). Further, immunoblot analysis was performed to evaluate distinct antibody diversity patterns to EBV early antigens (EA), besides EBNA1, VCA-p18, VCA-p40 (BdRF1) and Zebra (BZLF1). Patients with chronic active EBV infection and aberrant EBV activity were characterized as having an abnormal reactive pattern (ab_EBV). Ab EBV was observed in 20.9% of 2,238 included subjects with an increased proportion of cases presenting ab_EBV as compared to the control population (23.9% vs. 18.0% p = 0.001). Ab_EBV positivity was a risk factor for all lymphomas combined (odds ratio [OR] = 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.15-1.74), and specifically for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (OR = 2.96, 95%CI = 2.22-3.95). Lower levels of ab EBV were observed for follicular lymphoma (OR = 0.38, 95%-CI = 0.15-0.98). EBV may be involved in a larger subset of lymphomas among clinically immunocompetent subjects than previously thought, probably explained by an underlying loss of immune control of EBV latent infection. Ab_EBV is a useful too] to explore EBV imbalances preceeding or paralleling possible EBV associated oncogenic events. (C) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17557295
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  • 7
    Keywords: Germany ; INFORMATION ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; EXPOSURE ; HISTORY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; radiation ; TIME ; MECHANISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; mechanisms ; SKIN ; NO ; LYMPHOMA ; HEALTH ; lifestyle ; skin carcinogenesis ; FRANCE ; UNITED-STATES ; REPLICATION ; case-control studies ; sensitivity ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; multiple myeloma ; ADULT ; case-control study ; CHILDHOOD ; RE ; MALIGNANT-LYMPHOMA ; non-Hodgkin lymphoma ; methods ; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ; pooled analysis ; HODGKIN LYMPHOMA ; B-CELL ; CANCER-MORTALITY ; ENGLAND ; SUN EXPOSURE ; VITAMIN-D ; ULTRAVIOLET-RADIATION ; CONTROL-STUDY EPILYMPH ; non Hodgkin lymphoma ; non-Hodgkin ; B RADIATION ; OCCUPATIONAL SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE ; UV radiation
    Abstract: Background Three recent studies have reported a decreased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) for high ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. Methods We conducted a multicentre casecontrol study during 1998-2004 in France, Germany, Ireland, Italy and Spain, comprising 1518 cases of NHL, 268 cases of Hodgkin lymphoma, 242 cases of multiple myeloma and 2124 population or hospital controls. We collected information on sensitivity to sun and personal exposure to UV radiation in childhood and adulthood via interview, and assessed occupational exposure to UV radiation from the occupational history. Results The risk of Hodgkin and NHL was increased for increasing skin sensitivity to the sun [odds ratio (OR) for no suntan vs very brown 2.35, 95% CI 0.94-5.87 and 1.39, 95% CI 1.03-1.87, respectively]. The risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was reduced for increasing adult personal (OR for highest vs lowest quartile of exposure in free days 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.87) and for occupational exposure to UV radiation (OR for highest vs lowest exposure tertile 0.63, 95% CI 0.37-1.04). The risk of multiple myeloma was increased for personal exposure to UV radiation during adulthood (OR for highest vs lowest quartile of exposure in free days 1.49, 95% CI 0.88-2.50). A protective effect was observed for use of sun lamps for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR for 25 + times vs never 0.63, 95% CI 0.38-1.03). Conclusions The hypothesis of a protective effect of UV radiation on lymphoma is supported by our results. The underlying mechanisms might differ from those operating in skin carcinogenesis. The increased risk of multiple myeloma is worth replication
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18511490
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  • 8
    Keywords: Germany ; COHORT ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; LYMPHOMA ; AGE ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; etiology ; MEN ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; RECRUITMENT ; UNITED-STATES ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; EUROPE ; non-hodgkin's lymphoma ; MULTICENTER ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; OLDER WOMEN ; case-control study ; RE ; case control studies ; SUBTYPES ; pooled analysis ; CANCER-MORTALITY ; MULTICENTER CASE-CONTROL ; non-Hodgkin's
    Abstract: To study the role of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), we conducted a multicenter case-control study in Spain, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland and Czech Republic between 1998 and 2004, which included 1,742 cases of NHL and 2,465 controls matched on age, sex and recruitment area. Tobacco smoking was not associated with the risk of NHL overall or with risk of specific histological subtypes. Similarly, there was no association between alcohol drinking and the risk of NHL overall or across histological subtypes. However. a protective effect of alcohol drinking was observed among men (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62-0.93) and in non-Mediterranean countries (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.61-0.86). There was no evidence of interaction between alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking in NHL etiology. The results of this large-scale European study did not support an association between tobacco and NHL and suggested a protective effect of alcohol on development of NHL for men and in non-Mediterranean countries. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss. Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16557575
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  • 9
    Keywords: Germany ; human ; MODEL ; EXPOSURE ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; HISTORY ; RISK ; RNA ; INFECTION ; FAMILY ; T cell ; T-CELL ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; virus ; LYMPHOMA ; MALIGNANCIES ; AGE ; family history ; etiology ; COUNTRIES ; leukemia ; PATHOGENESIS ; REPLICATION ; case-control studies ; INDIVIDUALS ; PREVALENCE ; INTERVIEW ; MULTICENTER ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; immunoassay ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; SERUM ; MALIGNANCY ; case-control study ; RE ; FAMILIES ; VIRUS-INFECTION ; LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS ; MIXED CRYOGLOBULINEMIA ; METAANALYSIS ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; ENZYME ; SUBTYPES ; LYMPHOMAS ; SIZE ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; odds ratio ; B-CELL ; EXPOSURES ; MULTICENTER CASE-CONTROL ; RARE ; SAMPLE-SIZE ; HCV INFECTION
    Abstract: Background & Aims: Increasing evidence points toward a role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the etiology of malignant lymphomas. However, previous epidemiologic studies were limited in size to establish an association between HCV infection and specific lymphoma subtypes. We performed a large, multicenter, case-control study to address this question. Methods: The study comprised 5 European countries and included newly diagnosed cases of any lymphoid malignancy recruited between 1998 and 2004. Controls were matched to cases by 5-year age group, sex, and study center. In-person interviews were conducted to collect data on demographic, medical, and family history as well as environmental exposures. Serum samples of 1807 cases and 1788 controls (excluding human immunodeficiency virus-positive and organ-transplantation subjects) were screened for HCV infection using an enzyme immunoassay. Positive as well as randomly selected negative samples were subjected to HCV RNA detection and HCV genotyping. Results: HCV infection was detected in 53 (2.9%) lymphoma cases and in 41 (2.3%) control subjects (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-2.15). Restricted to individuals who tested positive for HCV-RNA (indicating persistent infection and active viral replication), the OR was 1.82 (95% CI: 1.13-2.91). In subtype-specific analyses, HCV prevalence was associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR, 2.19; 95% CI: 1.23-3.91) but not with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or follicular, Hodgkin's, or T-cell lymphoma. The sample size was not sufficient to derive any conclusions for rare lymphoma entities such as splenic marginal zone lymphoma. Conclusions: These results support a model that chronic HCV replication contributes to lymphomagenesis and establish a specific role of HCV infection in the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17087949
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  • 10
    Keywords: COMBINATION ; PATHWAY ; COMMON ; SUPPORT ; DISEASE ; POPULATION ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; PATIENT ; DNA ; recombination ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; antibodies ; antibody ; LYMPHOMA ; DNA-REPAIR ; REPAIR ; genetics ; SNP ; NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA ; PATHOGENESIS ; INSTABILITY ; POPULATIONS ; REVEALS ; heredity ; DNA repair ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; BREAST-CANCER RISK ; molecular biology ; molecular ; REGISTRY ; ALLELE ; SNPs ; CHROMOSOMAL INSTABILITY ; CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; INTERVAL ; analysis ; GENOTYPE ; HAPLOTYPE ; HAPLOTYPES ; leukaemia ; odds ratio ; REGISTRIES ; genomic ; GENOMIC ALTERATIONS ; myeloma ; in combination ; CLASS SWITCH RECOMBINATION ; REPAIR GENES ; TAG SNP SELECTION ; XRCC3
    Abstract: Cytogenetic analysis in myeloma reveals marked chromosomal instability. Both widespread genomic alterations and evidence of aberrant class switch recombination, the physiological process that regulates maturation of the antibody response, implicate the DNA repair pathway in disease pathogenesis. We therefore assessed 27 SNPs in three genes (XRCC3, XRCC4 and XRCC5) central to DNA repair in patients with myeloma and controls from the EpiLymph study and from an Irish hospital registry (n = 306 cases, 263 controls). For the haplotype-tagging SNP (htSNP) rs963248 in XRCC4, Allele A was significantly more frequent in cases than in controls (86.4 versus 80.8%; odds ratio 1.51; 95% confidence interval 1.10-2.08; P = 0.0133), as was the AA genotype (74 versus 65%) (P = 0.026). Haplotype analysis was performed using Unphased for rs963248 in combination with additional SNPs in XRCC4. The strongest evidence of association came from the A-T haplotype from rs963248-rs2891980 (P = 0.008). For XRCC5, the genotype GG from rs1051685 was detected in 10 cases from different national populations but in only one control (P = 0.015). This SNP is located in the 3'-UTR of XRCC5. Overall, these data provide support for the hypothesis that common variation in the genes encoding DNA repair proteins contributes to susceptibility to myeloma
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17901044
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