T-cell chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) is a rare disease in which EBV is present predominantly in T cells that infiltrate the tissues; patients have high levels of EBV in the blood. If untreated, patients often develop liver failure, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, coronary artery aneurysms, EBV infiltrating T cells impairing organ function, or T-cell lymphomas refractory to treatment. At present, hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is the only curative therapy, and it is critical to make a proper diagnosis and initiate transplantation before the disease progresses to an irreversible stage. Specific medications such as high-dose systemic corticosteroids or ganciclovir combined with either histone deacetylase inhibitors or bortezomib may temporarily reduce systemic toxicity associated with T-cell CAEBV and allow the patient time to receive a transplant. Relapses of the disease after transplantation have also occurred, and the use of donor-derived virus-specific T cells may help to treat these relapses.
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