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  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; proliferation ; IN-VIVO ; MODEL ; DISEASE ; DISTINCT ; MICE ; ACTIVATED MACROPHAGES ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; CRESCENTIC GLOMERULONEPHRITIS ; INJURIES ; LIGAND ; MESANGIAL CELLS ; MONOCYTE ARREST ; NEPHRITIS ; NITRIC-OXIDE ; RANTES ; RESPONSES
    Abstract: The chemokine CC chemokine ligand (CCL)5/RANTES as well as its respective receptor CCR5 mediate leukocyte infiltration during inflammation and are up-regulated early during the course of glomerulonephritis (GN). We tested the effects of the two CCL5/RANTES blocking analogs, Met-RANTES and amino-oxypentane- RANTES, on the course of horse apoferritin (RAF)induced GN. HAF-injected control mice had proliferative GN with mesangial immune complex deposits of IgG and HAF. Daily i.p. injections of Met-RANTES or amino-oxypentane-RANTES markedly reduced glomerular cell proliferation and glomerular macrophage infiltration, which is usually associated with less glomerular injury and proteinuria in RAF-GN. Surprisingly, however, RAF-GN mice treated with both analogs showed worse disease with mesangiolysis, capillary obstruction, and nephrotic range albuminuria. These findings were associated with an enhancing effect of the CCL5/RANTES analogs on the macrophage activation state, characterized by a distinct morphology and increased inducible NO synthetase expression in vitro and in vivo, but a reduced uptake of apoptotic cells in vivo. The Immoral response and the Th1/Th2 balance in HAF-GN and mesangial cell proliferation in vitro were not affected by the CCL5/RANTES analogs. We conclude that, despite blocking local leukocyte recruitment, chemokine analogs can aggravate some specific disease models, most likely due to interactions with systemic immune reactions, including the removal of apoptotic cells and inducible NO synthetase expression
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12759447
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; Germany ; human ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; MESANGIAL CELLS ; ARTHRITIS ; CELL ACTIVATION ; COMPLEXES ; CUTTING EDGE ; DNA ; IFN-GAMMA ; INFECTION ; kidney ; MACROPHAGES ; MECHANISM ; MESSENGER-RNA ; MESSENGER-RNA EXPRESSION ; MOTIFS ; murine ; OLIGODEOXYNUCLEOTIDES ; RECEPTOR EXPRESSION ; SERA ; TH1 RESPONSES ; TRIGGER
    Abstract: Immune complex glomerulonephritis (GN) often deteriorates during infection with viruses and bacteria that, in contrast to mammals, have DNA that contains many unmethylated CpG motifs. Balb/c mice with horse apoferritin-induced GN (HAF-GN) were treated with either saline, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), or control GpC-ODN. Only CpG-ODN exacerbated HAF-GN with an increase of glomerular macrophages, which was associated with massive albuminuria and increased renal MCP-1/CCL2, RANTES/CCL5, CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5 mRNA expression. CpG-ODN induced a Th1 response as indicated by serum anti-HAF IgG(2a) titers, mesangial IgG(2a) deposits, and splenocyte IFN-gamma secretion. Messenger RNA for the CpG-DNA receptor Toll-like reeptor 9 (TLR9) was present in kidneys with HAF-GN but not in normal kidneys. The source of TLR9 mRNA in HAF-GN could. be infiltrating macrophages or intrinsic renal cells, e.g., mesangial cells; but, in vitro, only murine J774 macrophages expressed TLR9. In J774 cells, CpG-ODN induced the chemokines MCP-1/CCL2 and RANTES/CCL5 and the chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5. It is concluded that CpG-DNA can aggravate preexisting GN via a shift toward a Th1 response but also by a novel pathway involving TLR9-mediated chemokine and chemokine receptor expression by macrophages, which may contribute to the enhanced glomerular macrophage recruitment and activation. This mechanism may be relevant during infection-triggered exacerbation of human immune-complex GN and other immune- mediated diseases in general
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12538732
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  • 3
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; DIAGNOSIS ; screening ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PATIENT ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ACTIVATION ; kidney ; DONOR ; INDUCTION ; treatment ; TARGET ; STAGE ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROMOTER ; STRESS ; STRESS-RESPONSE ; REGION ; REGIONS ; NF-kappa B ; TARGETS ; FAILURE ; COMPLICATIONS ; BIOPSY ; inflammation ; PROGRAM ; CLUSTER-ANALYSIS ; SIGNATURE ; HLA-A ; PROMOTER REGION ; renal failure ; RISK-FACTOR ; PROGRAMS ; DIABETIC-NEPHROPATHY ; PREVENTS ; CELL-ADHESION MOLECULE-1 ; GLOMERULAR INJURY
    Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure and a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients. To evaluate the multiple pathogenetic factors implicated in DN, unbiased mRNA expression screening of tubulointerstitial compartments of human renal biopsies was combined with hypothesis-driven pathway analysis. Expression fingerprints obtained from biopsies with histological diagnosis of DN (n = 13) and from control subjects (pretransplant kidney donors [n = 71 and minimal change disease [n = 41) allowed us to segregate the biopsies by disease state and stage by the specific expression signatures. Functional categorization showed regulation of genes linked to inflammation in progressive DN. Pathway mapping of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), a master transcriptional switch in inflammation, segregated progressive from mild DN and control subjects by showing upregulation of 54 of 138 known NF-kappa B targets. The promoter regions of regulated NF-kappa B targets were analyzed using Modellnspector, and the NF-kappa B module NFKB_IRFF_01 was found to be specifically enriched in progressive disease. Using this module, the induction of eight NFKB-IRFF-01-dependant genes was correctly predicted in progressive DN (B2M, CCL5/RANTES, CXCL10/IP10, EDN1, HLA-A, HLA-B, IFNB1, and VCAM1). The identification of a specific NF-kappa B promoter module activated in the inflammatory stress response of progressive DN has helped to characterize upstream pathways as potential targets for the treatment of progressive renal diseases such as DN
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17065335
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  • 4
    Keywords: CELLS ; ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; human ; DISEASE ; PROTEIN ; PATIENT ; MESANGIAL CELLS ; RAT ; MEMBER ; antibodies ; immunohistochemistry ; LOCALIZATION ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; ALPHA-RECEPTOR ; GROWTH-FACTOR-A ; INTERSTITIAL-CELLS ; REJECTION
    Abstract: PDGF-C is a new member of the PDGF-family and has recently been identified as a rat mesangial cell mitogen. Its expression and function in human kidneys is unknown. Localization of PDGF-C protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a rabbit polyclonal antibody directed against the core-domain of PDGF-C in human fetal kidneys (n = 8), normal adult human kidneys (n = 9), and in renal biopsies of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN, n = 31), membranous nephropathy (MGN, n = 8), minimal change disease (MC, n = 7), and transplant glomerulopathy (TxG, n = 12). Additionally, PDGF-C mRNA was detected in microdissected glomeruli by real-time RT-PCR in cases of normal adult kidneys (n = 7), IgAN (n = 27), MGN (n = 11), and MC (n = 13). In the fetal, kidney, PDGF-C localized to the developing mesangium, ureteric bud epithelium, and the undifferentiated mesenchyme. In the adult kidney, PDGF-C was constitutively expressed in parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule, tubular epithelial cells (loops of Henle, distal tubules, collecting ducts), and in arterial endothelial cells. A marked upregulation of glomerular PDGF-C protein was seen in MGN and TxG with a prominent positivity of virtually all podocytes. In MC, PDGF-C localized to podocytes in a more focal distribution. In MGN, increased glomerular PDGF-C protein expression was due to increased mRNA synthesis as a 4.3-fold increase in PDGF-C mRNA was detected in microdissected glomeruli from MGN compared with normal. PDGF-C protein was additionally expressed in individual mesangial cells in TxG. Finally, upregulated PDGF-C protein expression was detected within sclerosing glomerular and fibrosing tubulointerstitial lesions in individual cases from all analyzed groups. We conclude that PDGF-C is constitutively expressed in the human kidney and is upregulated in podocytes and interstitial cells after injury/activation of these cells
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12707385
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  • 5
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; POPULATION ; CDNA ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; transcription ; MOLECULES ; PATIENT ; ANTIGEN ; gene expression ; MARKERS ; MUTATIONS ; PARAMETERS ; BENIGN ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; RT-PCR ; MANAGEMENT ; FOCAL SEGMENTAL GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS ; GLOMERULAR PROTEIN ; MEMBRANE-PROTEIN ; NEPHRIN ; PATHOPHYSIOLOGY ; PROGRESSIVE NEPHROPATHIES ; RESISTANT NEPHROTIC SYNDROME
    Abstract: For identifying potential diagnostic markers of proteinuric glomerulopathies, glomerular mRNA levels of molecules relevant for podocyte function (alpha-actinin-4, glomerular epithelial protein 1, Wilms tumor antigen 1, synaptopodin, dystroglycan, nephrin, podoplanin, and podocin) were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR from microdissected glomeruli. Biopsies from 83 patients with acquired proteinuric diseases were analyzed (minimal change disease [MCD; n = 13], benign nephrosclerosis [n = 16], membranous glomerulopathy [n = 31], focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis [FSGS; n = 9], and controls [n = 14]). Gene expression levels normalized to two different housekeeping transcripts (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and 18 S rRNA) did not allow a separation between proteinuric disease categories. However, a significant positive correlation between a-actinin-4, glomerular epithelial protein 1, synaptopodin, dystroglycan, Wilms tumor antigen 1, and nephrin was found in all analyzed glomeruli, whereas podocin mRNA expression did not correlate. Because varying amounts of housekeeper cDNA per glomerulus can confound expression ratios relevant for a subpopulation of cells, an "in silico" microdissection was performed using a podocyte-specific cDNA as a reference gene. Expression ratio of podocin to synaptopodin, the two genes with the most disparate expression, allowed a robust separation of FSGS from MCD and nephrosclerosis. Segregation of FSGS from MCD via this ratio was confirmed in an independent population of formaldehyde-fixed archival biopsies (MCD, n = 5; FSGS, n = 4) after glomerular laser capture microdissection. In addition, the expression marker was able to predict steroid responsiveness in diagnostically challenging cases of MCD versus FSGS (n = 6). As the above approach can be performed as an add-on diagnostic tool, these molecular diagnostic parameters could give novel information for the management of proteinuric diseases
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14569107
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  • 6
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; proliferation ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; POPULATION ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; TIME ; PATIENT ; INJURIES ; LIGAND ; MESANGIAL CELLS ; NEPHRITIS ; RESPONSES ; kidney ; MARKER ; renal ; T cell ; T cells ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; antibodies ; antibody ; FORM ; TARGET ; NO ; immunohistochemistry ; DIFFERENCE ; NUMBER ; MARKERS ; LYMPHOCYTES ; MIGRATION ; LIGANDS ; RECRUITMENT ; T-LYMPHOCYTES ; T lymphocyte ; TARGETS ; glomerulonephritis ; NEPHROPATHY ; RECEPTORS ; DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION ; chemokine ; T lymphocytes ; INJURY ; PROGNOSTIC MARKERS ; targeting ; CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR ; ABSENCE ; COMPARTMENTS ; PATTERN ; CCR5 ; TRANSPLANT REJECTION ; CD3 ; REAL-TIME ; mRNA ; GLOMERULAR-DISEASES ; RENAL BIOPSIES ; CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS ; CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR CXCR3 ; chemokines ; HUMAN KIDNEY-DISEASES ; INDUCIBLE PROTEIN-10 ; lupus ; LYMPHOCYTE-FIBROBLAST INTERACTIONS ; MESANGIAL CELL ; PROLIFERATIVE GLOMERULONEPHRITIS
    Abstract: Chemokines play pivotal roles in the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the kidney. The chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 are expressed on activated T lymphocytes, and expression of CXCR3 by mesangial cells has been suggested. Detailed description of CXCR3 expression might form a rational basis for use as a diagnostic marker and for therapeutic CXCR3 targeting in human glomerulonephritis. We studied the expression of CXCR3 in renal biopsies by immunohistochemistry (n = 45), and real time RTPCR (n = 78). Biopsies were from patients with IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Furthermore, cultured human mesangial cells (HMC) were studied for CXCR3 expression, and for functional responses to the ligands CXCL10/IP-10 and CXCL9/Mig. CXCR3-positive cells were rarely found in glomerular tufts, but formed a major part of the tubulointerstitial infiltrates. Consistently, CXCR3 mRNA expression was too low to be quantified in glomerular compartments, and was not detectable in HMC. The published staining for CXCR3 of mesangial cells could be traced to cross-reactivity of an antibody for CXCR3 with a potentially related chemokine receptor as revealed by FACS analysis. Despite an absence of CXCR3 expression, mesangial cells reacted to CXCR3 ligands by proliferation and migration, which was blocked by pertussis toxin but not by an anti-CXCR3 antibody. These results indicate that HMC do not express the classical CXCR3, but may potentially express a related receptor with shared ligand specificity. By immunohistochemistry the number of CXCR3-positive cells, mainly interstitial T cells, correlated with renal function, proteinuria, and percentage of globally sclerosed glomeruli. A significant morphological and numerical correlation between CD3, CXCR3, and CCR5-positive cells indicated a CXCR3/CCR5 double-positive T cell population. No apparent difference in the CXCR3 expression pattern was found between disease entities. CXCR3 expression was localized to interstitial T cells, and these cells correlated strongly with important prognostic markers. Therefore interstitial CXCR3, as well as CCR5-positive T cells might play an important role during progressive loss of renal function, and are potential therapeutic targets in human glomerular diseases
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14742268
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  • 7
    Keywords: analysis, ANGIOTENSIN-II, antibodies, antibody, BENIGN, BIOPSIES, BIOPSY, CELL, CELLS, CHAIN, collag
    Abstract: Background Collagen type VIII is a non-fibrillar short-chain collagen that may modulate migration, proliferation and adherence of various cells. Only very sparse information exists on collagen type VIII expression in human diabetic nephropathy. Material and methods We retrospectively studied mRNA expression for the two collagen type VIII chains (COL8A1 and COL8A2) in 20 biopsies with histologically confirmed diabetic nephropathy by real-time PCR, and compared glomerular and tubular expression with normal kidney [pre-transplant biopsies (n = 10)]. Expression of collagen type VIII was also studied in biopsies from patients with benign nephrosclerosis (BNS; n = 16) and focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS; n = 9). Results A strong specific induction of COL8A1 mRNA was found in diabetic nephropathy in both glomerular and tubular compartments. There was also a robust induction of COL8A2 in diabetic nephropathy, but overall expression was lower than that of COL8A1 transcripts. No significant increase in COL8A1 and COL8A2 mRNAs expression was found in biopsies from patients with BNS and FSGS compared with normal kidneys. The cross-reactivity of the used anti-alpha 1(VIII) antibody with human tissue was confirmed by Western blots. Immunohistological analysis revealed only little staining for collagen type VIII in the normal kidney, localized to vessels. There was an up-regulation of collagen type VIII protein expression as shown by immunohistochemistry in the diabetic nephropathy biopsies mainly localized to mesangial cells, tubules and the interstitium. Proteinuria and serum creatinine did not correlate with glomerular or tubular COL8A1 and COL8A2 mRNA expression in diabetic patients. Conclusion Our study systemically investigates collagen type VIII expression in human biopsies. Induction of collagen type VIII was specific for diabetic nephropathy and did not occur in the other renal diseases studied. More specific factors of the diabetic environment are likely involved in the stimulated expression because there was no correlation of collagen type VIII mRNA expression with proteinuria. Since collagen type VIII may influence proliferation and migration of cells, it is possible that an increase in renal expression of collagen type VIII initiates other pathophysiological processes (e.g. proliferation of renal fibroblasts) involved in diabetic nephropathy
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17888087
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  • 8
    Keywords: CD44, CELL, CELL POLARITY, Chronic allograft dysfunction, COLLAGEN-PRODUCING CELLS, DAMAGE, developm
    Abstract: The Wnt signaling pathway, linked to development, has been proposed to be recapitulated during the progressive damage associated with chronic organ failure. Chronic allograft damage following kidney transplantation is characterized by progressive fibrosis and a smoldering inflammatory infiltrate. A modified, Fischer 344 (RT1〈SUlvl〈/SU) to Lewis (RT1〈SUl〈/SU) rat renal allograft model that reiterates many of the major pathophysiologic processes seen in patients with chronic allograft failure was used to study the progressive disease phenotype and specific gene product expression by immunohistochemistry and transcriptomic profiling. Central components of the Tgfb, canonical Wnt and Wnt-Ca2+ signaling pathways were significantly altered with the development of chronic damage. In the canonical Wnt pathway, Wnt3, Lef1 and Tcf1 showed differential regulation. Target genes Fn1, Cd44, Mmp7 and Nos2 were upregulated and associated with the progression of renal damage. Changes in the Wnt-Ca2+ pathway were evidenced by increased expression of Wnt6, Wnt7a, protein kinase C, Cam Kinase II and Nfat transcription factors and the target gene vimentin. No evidence for alterations in the Wnt planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway was detected. Overall results suggest cross talk between the Wnt and Tgfb signaling pathways during allograft inflammatory damage and present potential targets for therapeutic intervention
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19681821
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; KINASE ; FOLLOW-UP ; DISEASE ; POPULATION ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; RNA ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; kidney ; renal ; score ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROGRESSION ; gene expression ; MARKERS ; PATHOGENESIS ; PARAMETERS ; INTEGRIN ; STRATEGIES ; NEPHROPATHY ; RECEPTORS ; inflammation ; MAPS ; MATRIX ; cDNA array,gene expression,kidney,inflammation,fibrosis,interstitial hydronephrosis,real time RT-PCR ; CHEMOKINE EXPRESSION ; GLOMERULAR-DISEASES ; RENAL BIOPSIES
    Abstract: Background. Gene expression profiling of nephropathies may facilitate development of diagnostic strategies for complex renal diseases as well as provide insight into the molecular pathogenesis of kidney diseases. To test molecular based renal disease categorization, differential gene expression profiles were compared between control and hydronephrotic kidneys showing varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis.Methods. RNA expression profiles from 9 hydronephrotic and 3 control kidneys were analyzed using small macroarrays dedicated to genes involved in cell-cell contact, matrix turnover, and inflammation. In parallel, the degree of tubulointerstitial inflammation, fibrosis, and tubular atrophy using light microscopy and quantitative immunohistochemical parameters was determined.Results. Hierarchic clustering and self-organizing maps led to a gene expression dendrogram with three distinct nodes representing the control group, four kidneys with high inflammation, and five kidneys giving high fibrosis scores. To evaluate the clinical applicability of the marker set, the expression of nine genes (6Ckine, IL-8, MMP-9, MMP-3, MMP-7, urokinase R, CXCR5, integrin-beta4, and pleiotrophin) was tested in tubulointerstitial samples from routine renal biopsies. Seven mRNA markers showed differential regulation in inflammation and fibrosis in the biopsy population. Clinical follow-up revealed stringent correlation between gene expression data and progression of renal disease, and allowed segregation of the biopsies into progressive or stable disease course based on gene expression profiles.Conclusion. This study suggests the feasibility of gene expression-based disease categorization in human nephropathies based on the extraction of marker gene sets
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14871410
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  • 10
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; Germany ; MICROSCOPY ; DIAGNOSIS ; RNA ; TISSUE ; PATIENT ; NEPHRITIS ; DNA ; kidney ; TISSUES ; ANTIGEN ; ACID ; virus ; immunohistochemistry ; REPLICATION ; GENE-EXPRESSION ANALYSIS ; MANAGEMENT ; LIGHT ; RECIPIENTS ; VIRAL LOAD ; polymerase chain reaction ; TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS ; POLYOMAVIRUS ; JC virus ; complication ; CIDOFOVIR ; native kidney ; BK virus ; SV40 T-antigen ; URINE CYTOLOGY ; VIRUS-ASSOCIATED NEPHROPATHY
    Abstract: Polyomavirus mediated nephropathy is an increasingly recognized complication in renal transplant recipients. In all, 362 renal biopsies collected from 15 European transplant centers were analyzed for presence of Polyomavirus nucleic acid (BK virus [BKV] and JC virus [JCV]). We evaluated 302 biopsies of patients with renal allograft dysfunction, including three with known BKV allograft nephropathy (BKVAN), and 60 native kidney biopsies. BKV DNA was detected in 8 of the 302 (2.6 %) biopsies obtained for transplant dysfunction, but in none of the controls. BKV RNA, indicating active viral replication, was found in all BKV DNA positive biopsies available for mRNA expression studies. Retrospective immunohistochemical staining was positive for SV40 large T antigen in all seven evaluated biopsies. BKV DNA and RNA were detected in biopsy tissues from patients with inconspicuous light microscopy for BKVAN. Further studies will evaluate the potential of intrarenal viral BKV RNA as an early predictor for BKVAN
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16177632
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