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  • 1
    Keywords: HIGH-DOSE CHEMOTHERAPY ; ADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY ; CHILDHOOD MEDULLOBLASTOMA ; PEDIATRIC-ONCOLOGY-GROUP ; outcome prediction ; CHILDRENS CANCER GROUP ; BETA-CATENIN STATUS ; CRANIOSPINAL RADIATION-THERAPY ; STEM-CELL RESCUE ; RISK MEDULLOBLASTOMA
    Abstract: Medulloblastoma is curable in approximately 70 % of patients. Over the past decade, progress in improving survival using conventional therapies has stalled, resulting in reduced quality of life due to treatment-related side effects, which are a major concern in survivors. The vast amount of genomic and molecular data generated over the last 5-10 years encourages optimism that improved risk stratification and new molecular targets will improve outcomes. It is now clear that medulloblastoma is not a single-disease entity, but instead consists of at least four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT/Wingless, Sonic Hedgehog, Group 3, and Group 4. The Medulloblastoma Down Under 2013 meeting, which convened at Bunker Bay, Australia, brought together 50 leading clinicians and scientists. The 2-day agenda included focused sessions on pathology and molecular stratification, genomics and mouse models, high-throughput drug screening, and clinical trial design. The meeting established a global action plan to translate novel biologic insights and drug targeting into treatment regimens to improve outcomes. A consensus was reached in several key areas, with the most important being that a novel classification scheme for medulloblastoma based on the four molecular subgroups, as well as histopathologic features, should be presented for consideration in the upcoming fifth edition of the World Health Organization's classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Three other notable areas of agreement were as follows: (1) to establish a central repository of annotated mouse models that are readily accessible and freely available to the international research community; (2) to institute common eligibility criteria between the Children's Oncology Group and the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Europe and initiate joint or parallel clinical trials; (3) to share preliminary high-throughput screening data across discovery labs to hasten the development of novel therapeutics. Medulloblastoma Down Under 2013 was an effective forum for meaningful discussion, which resulted in enhancing international collaborative clinical and translational research of this rare disease. This template could be applied to other fields to devise global action plans addressing all aspects of a disease, from improved disease classification, treatment stratification, and drug targeting to superior treatment regimens to be assessed in cooperative international clinical trials.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24264598
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  • 2
    Abstract: Central nervous system primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (CNS-PNETs), have recently been re-classified in the most recent 2016 WHO Classification into a standby catch all category, "CNS Embryonal Tumor, not otherwise specified" (CNS embryonal tumor, NOS) based on epigenetic, biologic and histopathologic criteria. CNS embryonal tumors (NOS) are a rare, histologically and molecularly heterogeneous group of tumors that predominantly affect children, and occasionally adults. Diagnosis of this entity continues to be challenging and the ramifications of misdiagnosis of this aggressive class of brain tumors are significant. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a central nervous system embryonal tumor (NOS) based on immunohistochemical analysis of the patient's tumor at diagnosis. However, later genome-wide methylation profiling of the diagnostic tumor undertaken to guide treatment, revealed characteristics most consistent with IDH-mutant astrocytoma. DNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of IDH1 and ATRX mutations resulting in a revised diagnosis of high-grade small cell astrocytoma, and the implementation of a less aggressive treatment regime tailored more appropriately to the patient's tumor type. This case highlights the inadequacy of histology alone for the diagnosis of brain tumours and the utility of methylation profiling and integrated genomic analysis for the diagnostic verification of adults with suspected CNS embryonal tumor (NOS), and is consistent with the increasing realization in the field that a combined diagnostic approach based on clinical, histopathological and molecular data is required to more accurately distinguish brain tumor subtypes and inform more effective therapy.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28993028
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Problems preventing establishment of laboratory colonies of parthenogenetic lizards have been solved. Now, productive colonies of these lizards, which have remarkably little genetic variation, can be readily established and used not only for research on parthenogenesis but also for many kinds of experiments for which reptile systems are desirable. Research colonies can provide valuable specimens while reducing the exploitation of natural populations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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