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    Keywords: COMBINATION ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; RISK ; HEART ; TIME ; MARKER ; ASSOCIATION ; ASSAY ; DESIGN ; PLASMA ; NUMBER ; AGE ; meta-analysis ; smoking ; DATABASE ; C-REACTIVE PROTEIN ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; HEART-DISEASE ; vascular disease ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; ISCHEMIC-STROKE ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; METAANALYSIS ; LEVEL ; methods ; EXTENT ; ARTERY-DISEASE ; MIDDLE-AGED MEN ; ACTIVATING-FACTOR-ACETYLHYDROLASE ; ATHEROSCLEROSIS RISK ; lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) ; LIPOPROTEIN-ASSOCIATED PHOSPHOLIPASE-A2 ; REPEAT
    Abstract: Background A large number of observational epidemiological studies have reported generally positive associations' between circulating mass and activity levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Few studies have been large enough to provide reliable estimates in different circumstances, such as in different subgroups (e.g., by age group, sex, or smoking status) or at different Lp-PLA2 levels. Moreover, most published studies have related disease risk only to baseline values of Lp-PLA(2) markers (which can lead to substantial underestimation of any risk relationships because of within-person variability over time) and have used different approaches to adjustment for possible confounding factors. Objectives By combination of data from individual participants from all relevant observational studies in a systematic,meta-analysis, with correction for regression dilution (using available data on serial measurements of Lp-PLA(2)), the Lp-PLA(2) Studies Collaboration will aim to characterize more precisely than has previously been possible the strength and shape of the age and sex-specific associations of plasma Lp-PLA(2) with coronary heart disease (and, where data are sufficient with other vascular diseases, such as ischaemic stroke). It will also help to determine to what extent such associations are independent of possible confounding factors and to explore potential sources of heterogeneity among studies, such as those related to assay methods and study design. It is anticipated that the present collaboration will serve as a framework to investigate related questions on Lp-PLA(2) and cardiovascular outcomes. Methods A central database is being established containing data on circulating Lp-PLA(2) values, sex and other potential confounding factors, age at baseline Lp-PLA(2) Measurement, age at event or at last follow-up, major vascular morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information about any repeat measurements of Lp-PLA2 and potential confounding factors has been sought to allow adjustment for possible confounding and correction for regression dilution. The analyses will involve age-specific regression models. Synthesis of the available observational studies of Lp-PLA(2) will yield information on a total of about 15 000 cardiovascular disease endpoints
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17301621
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  • 3
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  38. Jahrestagung der Deutschsprachigen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Verbrennungsbehandlung (DAV 2020); 20200115-20200118; Zell am See, Österreich; DOC11.06 /20200113/
    Publication Date: 2020-01-14
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0032-8332
    Keywords: Chimpanzee ; Pan troglodytes ; Diet ; Prey choice ; Termite
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This study examines factors affecting chimpanzees' preying on termites, especially their choice of prey species. Regular surveys of a large sample of termite-mounds in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania, confirmed that chimpanzees of B Group obtainedMacrotermes, which were relatively uncommon, by the use of fishing-tools, but ignored the much more abundantOdontotermes. This preference appeared to reflectMacrotermes' more extended swarming period, greater accessibility, larger size, and less noxious taste than the soldiers ofOdontotermes. Similar factors probably underly the chimpanzees' choice ofMacrotermes at Gombe, butPseudacanthotermes spiniger are also common there, and their absence from the diet is less easily explained. In contrast, the chimpanzees of K Group at Mahale prey mainly onP. spiniger;Macrotermes are apparently absent, andP. spiniger appear to be more abundant, accessible, and palatable than the alternativeOdontotermes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0032-8332
    Keywords: Chimpanzees ; Termites ; Tool-use ; Culture ; Mahale ; Gombe
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Nishida andUehara have contrasted two groups of chimpanzees at the Mahale Mountains in their manner of obtaining termites for food. K-group very rarely used tools, but evidence suggested that B-group did so regularly to fish forMacrotermes. They suggested that this difference was not a cultural one, but was explained by the absence ofMacrotermes in K-group's range. We attempted to test this hypothesis, and here examine the termite fauna in the ranges of the two groups. Our data confirm that termite-fishing was contingent upon the presence ofMacrotermes in B-group's range, and that cultural explanations are not necessary to explain the rarity of tool use by K-group, which instead could catchPseudacanthotermes without using tools. Comparison of the termite faunas in the ranges of K-group, of B-group, and of the chimpanzees at Gombe, suggest that, apart fromMacrotermes, two genera might be the main alternative prey:Pseudacanthotermes, which could be more commonly included in the diet at Gombe, and might also be eaten by B-group, andCubitermes which is available at both these sites.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Algebra and logic 9 (1970), S. 442-446 
    ISSN: 1573-8302
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archiv der Mathematik 62 (1994), S. 1-11 
    ISSN: 1420-8938
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4846
    Keywords: water soluble silica ; colloids ; 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane ; tetramethoxysilane ; reversible gel ; DLVO theory
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The unique sol/gel behavior of an organic/inorganic hybrid material synthesized from 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (3AS) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) is discussed and examined. The addition of H2O to a mixture of a basic (3AS) and an acidic (TMOS) alkoxide leads to rapid gel formation. This wet gel reverses to a sol upon heating which is attributed to the dissolution of siloxane bonds between the surfaces of colloidal particles in the gel. The reversed sol dries to an optically transparent solid which is water soluble. The water solubility and the stability of these colloidal particles are described by their aminopropyl/silanol surface and the electrostatic interactions between them using DLVO theory.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1437-9813
    Keywords: Key words Gastroschisis ; “Peel” ; Complicated gastroschisis ; Short-gut syndrome ; Pre-term labor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The marked advantages and merit of pre-term and particularly pre-labor (PTPL) cesarean section (C-section) in the avoidance, and indeed, virtual elimination of severely disabling gastroschisis (GS) complications in infants diagnosed prior to birth by ultrasound has unfortunately remained controversial in the 10 to 12 years since it was first reported and strongly recommended by numerous authors. During this period, GS has remained one of the four major causes of the short-gut syndrome (SGS) in infancy and childhood and a major cause of prolonged, costly, complicated, and hazardous neonatal intensive care unit stays with requirements for total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The most serious and frequent complications of GS in infants born without PTPL C-section are the occurrence of the “peel”, which greatly enlarges and rigidifies the eviscerated gut, and of “complicated GS” (intestinal atresia/s, stenosis, necrosis, perforations) (CGS). The “peel” occurs in 100% of these cases and CGS in approximately 20%. “Peel” enlargement and rigidification of eviscerated intestine in the presence of a reduced peritoneal cavity causes great difficulty in covering the eviscerated, enlarged, and rigidified gut with abdominal wall, skin, a prosthesis, etc., and frequently produces gut ischemia from excessive pressure, which may lead to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and SGS as well as prolonged hospital stays. The presence of a “peel” greatly complicates the hazards of dealing with cases of CGS, as resection and anastomosis are virtually impossible in the presence of a “peel.” The authors report personal experience with 77 cases of GS dating as far back as 1951; 44 of the infants were born after the onset of labor by vaginal or C-section delivery and all had some degree of “peel” formation. Of 320 cases from the literature (including some of the cases reported here), 61 (19.1%) involved CGS. Of the 33 cases born PT, and especially PL, there were no cases of “peel” and only 1 case of CGS (3.0%). This infant had a single atresia associated with a very small (1 cm) defect in the abdominal wall and no labor-induced “peel,” which was easily and successfully repaired by resection and anastomosis. The 6.4-fold reduction in the occurrence of CGS by PTPL C-section (3.0% vs 19.1%) was statistically significant by the chi-square test (P 〈 0.05), as was the 100% elimination of the disabling “peel.” If the single case of CGS associated with a very small defect and no labor or labor-associated “peel” is eliminated, the incidence of CGS in the remaining PTPL group of 32 cases falls to 0 (0% versus 19.1%, P 〈 0.007). PT and especially PL C-section may be expected to virtually eliminate “peel” formation and CGS and to remove GS as one of the four major causes of SGS. The findings of this report that PT labor prior to PT C-section may result in both “peel” formation and CGS further solidifies the role of labor in the production of both the “peel” and the equally disabling CGS. Failure to appreciate the central role of labor in GS complications has doubtless contributed to the persistent controversy concerning the value and importance of PTPL C-section for gastroschisis diagnosed in utero. The pediatric surgeon has an important responsibility with the obstetrician to monitor the possible occurrence of occult labor in the waning weeks of pregnancy and be prepared to do a prompt C-section if it occurs and there is adequate lung maturity. The achievement of “peel”- and CGS-free gut would greatly facilitate the use of the new Bianchi technique of gut reduction without anesthesia. The combination of the use of epidural anesthesia for the elective PTPL C-section with the Bianchi approach would spare both mother and baby any untoward effects of general anesthesia and present the potential for massive reductions in hospital costs with minimal patient manipulation and disturbance. For infants born with labor-associated “peel,” re-evaluation of the suitability and effectiveness of surgical “peel” decortication from involved gut is strongly urged.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-6822
    Keywords: apoptosis ; differentiation ; keratinocytes ; UVB radiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract UVB irradiation can induce apoptotic, necrotic, and differentiation pathways in normal human keratinocytes. The present study was undertaken to determine at what dose of UVB each of these pathways is induced and whether these pathways are distinct or overlapping. We have observed that UVB induces fragmentation of DNA in human HaCaT keratinocytes, in a bimodal manner. Low doses of UVB, 5–20 mJ/cm2, increase the levels of apoptosis as shown by increased levels of fragmented DNA, Fas, PARP, and FasL protein, and the number of apoptotic cells as assessed by FACS analysis. At higher doses of UVB (20 and 30 mJ/cm2) the number of apoptotic cells becomes reduced, as does the amount of Fas, PARP, and FasL protein. At these higher doses, cell viability is decreased as measured by DNA synthesis (BrdU labeling) neutral red uptake, which represents an increasing necrotic phenotype. Expression of markers of keratinocyte differentiation, involucrin, keratin K1, and keratin K10, are also observed to decrease with increasing UVB dose. These changes are accompanied by a further increase in DNA fragmentation. We conclude that low doses of UVB (5–20 mJ/cm2) induced an apoptotic pathway, whereas increasing doses (greater than 20 mJ/cm2) of UVB produce a direct necrotic effect and inhibit terminal differentiation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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