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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words Epidermal growth factor ; Murine monoclonal antibody ; Glioma ; Immunotherapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Malignant glioblastoma may over-express the epidermal-growth-factor receptor (EGF-R). Normal brain cells show a low or no expression of EGF-R. A mouse monoclonal antibody (IgG2A) (mAb 425) (EMD55900) (Merck KGaA, Bernstadt, Germany) directed against EGF-R was produced for therapeutic use. Eight patients with primary or recurrent, EGF-R-positive glioblastomas entered the study, which was designed to evaluate the clinical effect of the mAb. In order to achieve a high tumor cell saturation, the mAb was injected intratumorally twice weekly through an implantable catheter. The total administered dose varied between 4 mg and 120 mg. In 3 patients with solid tumors, a massive tumor necrosis was noted, with infiltration of macrophages, granulocytes and T cells. A further 3 patients developed clinical and radiological signs of an intense, local, inflammatory reaction. There may be a relation between the mAb dosage and the antitumor effect, insofar as higher doses seemed to cause a more pronounced, inflammatory reaction. Of the 8 patients, 6 developed human, anti-(mouse Ig) antibodies. This anti-EGF-R mAb may induce an intense, inflammatory reaction and a considerable necrosis in glioblastoma. However, the planned schedule could not be completed, even after the dose level was re-adjusted, owing to inflammatory reactions, which were severe without prior tumor debulking.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Bladder cancer ; Tumor markers ; TPA ; Cytokeratin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and various cytokeratins was studied with immunohistochemical techniques in malignant, normal and inflamed urothelium. TPA and cytokeratins 8, 18 and 19 were similarly distributed and there was no difference between benign and malignant conditions. All keratins were most abundant in the outer cell layers of the urothelium. EMA was present primarily in the so called umbrella cells. Increased levels of TPA in urine and serum are found in patients with urothelial carcinoma. TPA is reported to be related to the cytoskeletal keratins and its presence definitely does not imply malignant transformation as we have demonstrated it in both benign and malignant urothelium. The increased levels of TPA in urine and serum are probably due to a more rapid turnover and autolysis of cells and may parallel a more aggressive tumor behaviour.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Glioblastoma multiforme ; human ; interferon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This report presents the results of a phase I trial of the value of human leucocyte inferon-alpha in the treatment of glioblastoma. Twelve patients entered the trial. In one case we believe that the patient benefitted from the interferon treatment. CT scans of patients on interferon did not reveal the true extent of the tumorous tissue.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neuro-oncology 24 (1995), S. 37-38 
    ISSN: 1573-7373
    Keywords: genetic alterations ; loss of heterozygosity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Conclusion It would seem that distinct genetic changes in different genes, the protein products of which interact in particular growth control mechanism may lead to the same cellular abnormality. This is exemplified in the case of the gliomas by the ways in which p53 and the Rb1 phosphorylation mechanisms may be rendered impotent. It seems likely that many further genetic abnormalities affecting genes coding for proteins, either involved in the cellular mechanisms identified or in new growth control mechanisms, will be found in the future. In total our results indicate both differences and similarities between the molecular genetic alterations in tumors with oligodendroglial and astrocytic differentiation. The loss of genetic information from 19q and 1p as well as the rareness ofTP53 mutations in oligodendroglial tumors suggests that the early events in their oncogenesis are distinct from those associated with astrocytic tumors. However, similarities are indicated by the allelic losses on 9p and 10 in the anaplastic tumors, suggesting the utilization of common pathways of progression.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Adriamycin ; malignant gliomas ; glioblastoma ; chemotherapy ; tissue concentration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Eight patients with malignant gliomas verified on CT scan, received an intravenous injection of 50 mg of Adriamycin R, 24 hours prior to surgical removal of the tumour. Peroperatively, both tumour and surrounding tissue specimens were obtained for determination of the tissue concentrations of Adriamycin and its reduced metabolite Adriamycinol. It was found that Adriamycin could be detected in tumour tissue from all patients. The concentration varied between 0,9 and 4,6 nmol/g tissue. In contrast, Adriamycin could only be detected in surrounding brain tissue from one patient. In anin vitro study a human malignant glioma cell line (U-251 MG) was exposed to various concentrations of Adriamycin for 24 hours. It was found that an intracellular drug concentration above 30 nmol/g cells caused a concentration dependent inhibition of cell growth. Thus, it is likely that the poor effect of Adriamycin on patients with malignant gliomas is due to an ineffective drug accumulation in the tumour tissue.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This study was carried out in order to obtain data on the relation between tumour structures seen in computer tomograms and the corresponding histopathology and cytology. Nine consecutive patients were studied, and stereotactic biopsies were obtained from sites determined on contrast enhanced computer tomograms. Biopsies were obtained from tumour areas with high and low contrast uptake and from the low attenuating areas surrounding the tumours. The results indicated a close correlation between the microscopical morphology of gliomas and the pattern of the computer tomogram. Biopsy samples from low-uptake central areas contained tumour tissue, necrotic tissue, and in one case a cyst. Biopsies from high-uptake areas typically contained tumour tissue, whereas biopsies from low-uptake surrounding areas contained oedematous non-tumour tissue. For tumour diagnosis biopsies should be obtained from both low and high attenuating tumour areas.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The ganglioside composition of 59 meningiomas has been compared with a molecular genetic analysis of chromosome 22 in the same specimens. Major gangliosides were GM3 (II3NeuAc-LacCer) and/orGD3 [II3(NeuAc)2-LacCer]. In specimens with no or partial deletions of chromosome 22, the GM3 ganglioside predominated, and the mean value for GM3, 61% of total sialic acid, was around four times higher than that for GD3. A loss of chromosome 22, found in 56% of the specimens, was shown to be associated with an increase in the proportion of ganglioside GD3, with the ratio between mean values of GM3 and GD3 being ∼ 1:1. Logistic regression revealed that the probability of predicting monosomy of chromosome 22 by the GD3 proportion was 66%.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Three autopsy brains from patients who succumbed to malignant gliomas have been analyzed in various regions with regard to their ganglioside content. The study focused on the gangliosides GD3 and 3′-isoLM1, which in a previous study of biopsies were found to be associated with these tumors. In particular, 3′-isoLM1, was suggested to be a marker for malignant gliomas. The highest concentrations (200–1,000 nmol of sialic acid/g wet weight) of GD3 was found in specimens of macroscopically pure tumor, where the proportion of GD3 was, at the most, 78% (range, 11–78%) of the total ganglioside sialic acid compared with 〈10% in normal brain tissue. The proportion of the total ganglioside sialic acid made up by GD3 was also elevated in the periphery of the tumor and in the same region in the opposite hemisphere, where no tumor cells were detected. In four of eight brain metastases of various carcinomas, GD3 was 〉10% of the total ganglioside sialic acid (range, 3–37%). The ganglioside 3′-isoLM1, as determined by TLC-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a specific monoclonal antibody (SL-50), was not present at detectable levels in any of the macroscopically homogenous tumor areas. It was, however, found in the periphery of the tumor, in the corpus callosum, and at highest concentrations in the region of the opposite hemisphere corresponding to the tumor. The concentration varied between 0.1 and 6.0 nmol/g wet weight of tissue. The 3′-isoLM1 ganglioside was not detected in normal gray or white matter or in the normal corpus callosum, but in one of three breast cancer metastasis, one of two low differentiated cancer metastases, and one stomach cancer. The concentration was 1–4 nmol/g wet weight. These results indicate a unique distribution of the gangliosides GD3 and 3′-isoLM1 and suggest that they play distinct roles in interaction between tumor cells and brain.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pflügers Archiv 414 (1989), S. S137 
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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