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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Key words Nasal pungency ; Sensory irritation ; Volatile organic compounds ; Hydrogen bonding ; Linear free energy equation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Nasal pungency thresholds (NPT) in man have been determined by Cometto-Muniz and Cain for 44 varied compounds, including esters, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, carboxylic acids, aromatic hydrocarbons and pyridine. With the exclusion of acetic acid, 43 of these NPT values are well correlated through the general linear free energy equation of Abraham, leading to the algorithm, where the independent variables are solute descriptors: 2 H is the dipolarity/polarizability, Σ2 H and Σ2 H are the overall or effective hydrogen-bond acidity and basicity, and L 16 is the solute Ostwald solubility coefficient on hexadecane at 25 °C. Surprisingly, the aliphatic aldehydes and carboxylic acids fit the correlation and with respect to nasal pungency thresholds in man for brief (1–3 s) presentations must be regarded as `nonreactive' compounds. It is suggested mere transport of the compound from the air stream to the receptor area largely determines the potency to produce pungency. Various chemical properties of the receptor area are deduced from the coefficients in Eq. i.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 4 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: We tested nasal detection thresholds for airborne chemicals in a group of anosmics (i.e., subjects lacking a functional sense of smell) and in a group of age-, gender-, and smoking-status-matched normosmics (i.e., subjects with normal olfaction). Anosmics provided odor unbiased nasal pungency (irritation) thresholds. Normosmics provided odor thresholds. Homologous series of alcohols, acetates, and ketones served as stimuli. Eye irritation thresholds were also measured for selected acetates. Most substances evoked pungency (i.e., were detected by the anosmics). All sensory thresholds decreased systematically with carbon chain length. The gap between pungency and odor grew larger with increasing carbon chain length. Pungency thresholds-but not odor thresholds-showed a uniform linear relationship of slope close to unity with saturated vapor concentration, irrespective of chemical functionality or carbon chain length. This suggests that pungency from nonreactive airborne chemicals rests heavily on a relatively unspecific physical interaction with a susceptible biophase. Of relevance to indoor environments, such an interaction opens the possibility for a high degree of sensory addition of pungency from individual components of complex mixtures resulting in noticeable irritation even when each component is at a level well below threshold value.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing
    Indoor air 14 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Key words Smell ; Nasal irritation ; Eye irritation ; n-Alcohols ; Anosmia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: The principal objective was to chart sensitivity for human nasal irritation by alternative psychophysical methods, namely, a common detection procedure versus a nasal lateralization procedure that required the subject to indicate whether a vapor had stimulated the left or right nostril. This objective relates to the broader issues as to (a) whether subjects with normal olfaction (normosmics) can yield, through novel methodology, an index of sensitivity to nasal irritation comparable with that obtained from subjects without olfaction (anosmics) and (b) whether both types of subjects have similar irritation sensitivity in general. This study sought to gauge interconvertability both between types of subjects and between modes of stimulus presentation for irritative and, where appropriate, olfactory stimulation. Methods: Static dilution series of four n-aliphatic alcohols, chosen to represent volatile organic compounds (VOCs), provided the source of calibrated olfactory and irritative vapors emitted from their squeezable containers into the nose or eye either by a mechanical device or by hand. Standard psychophysical methodology (forced-choice; ascending strength of stimulation) served to chart detection thresholds for irritation and odor and an analogous procedure served to chart the threshold for localization of stimulation. Results: Within the limits of resolution, detection thresholds and nasal localization thresholds yielded comparable indices of the potency of the VOCs to evoke nasal irritation. The thresholds agreed well with those for detection of eye irritation, though only the eyes proved to be capable of detecting irritation from 1-octanol. The method of emitting the stimulus had little material effect on measures of either irritative or olfactory detection. Conclusions: The threshold for nasal localization offers a suitable way to measure nasal irritation in normosmic persons. Olfactory stimulation does not interfere with the measure since subjects cannot localize on that basis. Anosmic and normosmic persons have comparable sensitivity to nasal and ocular irritation. If anosmic persons have any lower sensitivity, as sometimes claimed, it would seem to have only trivial consequences for estimates of the irritative potency of VOCs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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