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  • 1
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Flagellar surface components ; Mastigonemes ; Oomycete ; Phytophthora cinnamomi ; Monoclonal antibodies ; Immunofluorescence microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Cryomicrotomy and immunofluorescence microscopy employing three different categories of monoclonal antibody (MAb) that label antigens on the surface of one or both flagella ofPhytophthora dnnamomi have been used to follow the synthesis and assembly of flagellar surface components. MAb Zf 1 binds to the surface of both the anterior tinsel and posterior whiplash flagella, as well as to a nuclear component. The labeling of the flagella is punctate in nature, is brighter at the flagellar base, and does not always extend to the distal tip of the flagella. MAbs in the Zt group recognise an antigen that is located along the sides of the tinsel flagellum and may be associated with the base of the mastigonemes. Immunodot-blot analysis has shown that binding of Zt MAbs is abolished by pretreatment with either pronase or periodate oxidation indicating that the antigen is a glycoprotein. MAbs in the Zg group bind to the mastigonemes on the tinsel flagellum and to packets of mastigonemes in the cytoplasm of zoospores. Zt and Zg antigens increase in abundance during zoosporogenesis and are present throughout the life cycle of the fungus, whereas the non-nuclear localisation of the Zf antigen appears only during sporulation. Prior to association with the flagellar surface, all three components become clustered in the groove region of zoospores. They do not become associated with the flagellar surface until at least 15 min after the flagellar axoneme has formed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Oomycetes ; Pythium ; Phytophthora ; Monoclonal antibodies ; Surface antigens ; Immunocytochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The oomycetes are a class of protists that produce biflagellate asexual zoospores. Members of the oomycetes have close phylogenetic affinities with the chromophyte algae and are widely divergent from the higher fungi. This review focuses on two genera,Phytophthora andPythium, which belong to the family Pythiaceae, and the order Peronosporales. These two genera contain many species that cause serious diseases in plants. Molecules on the surface of zoospores and cysts of these organisms are likely to play crucial roles in the infection of host plants. Knowledge of the properties of the surface of these cells should thus help increase our understanding of the infection process. Recent studies ofPhytophthora cinnamomi andPythium aphanidermatum have used lectins to analyse surface carbohydrates and have generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed towards a variety of zoospore and cysts surface components. Labelling studies with these probes have detected molecular differences between the surface of the cell body and of the flagella of the zoospores. They have been used to follow changes in surface components during encystment, including the secretion of an adhesive that bonds the spores to the host surface. Binding of lectin and antibody probes to the surface of living zoospores can induce encystment, giving evidence of cell receptors involved in this process. Freeze-substitution and immunolabelling studies have greatly augmented our understanding of the synthesis and assembly of the zoospore surface during zoosporogenesis. Synthesis of a variety of zoospore components begins when sporulation is induced. Cleavage of the multinucleate sporangium is achieved through the progressive extension of partitioning membranes, and a number of surface antigens are assembled onto the zoospore surface during cleavage. Comparisons of antibody binding to many isolates and species ofPhytophthora andPythium have revealed that surface components on zoospores and cysts exhibit a range of taxonomic specificities. Surface antigens or epitopes may occur on only a few isolates of a species; they may be species-specific, genus-specific or occur on the spores of both genera. Spore surface antigens thus promise to be of significant value for studies of the taxonomy and phylogeny of these protists, as well as for disease diagnosis.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 283 (1980), S. 647-649 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Natural fires have been documented in grassland, tundra, boreal forest, deciduous forest and tropical evergreen forest ecosystems in North America1,2. In the southeastern US, fires are common in drought-dried peat3. Burning may also occur in dried strand-line accumulations of both aquatic and ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 290 (1981), S. 428-428 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] CHALONER AND COPE REPLY- Although we are aware that charcoal may be produced in a variety of physical conditions, we must stress that the theme of our letter was to examine the palaeoatmospheric implications of our studies of the widespread distribution of charcoal (fusinite) in the geological ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0005-2728
    Keywords: (Brain) ; Cytochrome aa"3 ; Hemodynamics ; Hemoglobin ; Infrared spectroscopy ; Near infrared spectroscopy
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objective To investigate the effect of the frequency of uterine contractions on fetal cerebral oxygenation, using near infrared spectroscopy.Design An observational study relating changes in the fetal cerebral concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin, measured from the start of one contraction to that of the next, to the time interval between contraction peaks observed by external tocography.Setting A teaching hospital obstetric and neonatal unit.Subjects Ten term fetuses during labour.Results Changes in cerebral oxyhaemoglobin concentration were positively, and in deoxyhaemoglobin negatively, correlated with the time interval between contractions (P 〈 0.001). A mean contraction interval of 2.3 min was found below which the concentration of oxyhaemoglobin usually fell and that of deoxyhaemoglobin rose, indicating a fall in cerebral haemoglobin saturation. Conversely, longer contraction intervals were associated with findings indicative of a rise in cerebral haemoglobin saturation.Conclusion Short contraction intervals (〈 2.3 min) were associated with a decrease, and longer contraction intervals with an increase in fetal cerebral oxygen saturation. Contractions occurring repeatedly at intervals less than 2.3 min are likely to result in progressive cerebral desaturation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Cerebral ; Cytochrome aa3 ; Haemoglobin ; Near infra-red ; Oxygenation ; Spectroscopy ; Transillumination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The technique of near-infra-red spectroscopy allows safe continuous monitoring of changes in blood and tissue oxygenation on an intact organ. This is made possible by observing spectral changes in the tissues caused by oxygenated haemoglobin [HbO2], deoxygenated haemoglobin [Hb] and cytochrome aa3 [Cyt aa3]. The paper describes the design and performance of an instrument that has been developed to apply this technique to the monitoring of the brain in newborn infants. The instrument monitors optical transmission changes across a newborn infant's brain at four wavelengths. A standard deviation in error of 1 per cent (0·01 optical density OD) is achieved on measurements of transmission changes at 20s intervals. This performance is obtained at a mean attenuation of 10 OD, the approximate attenuation across a term infant's head. Long-term monitoring is possible as instrumental drift is less than 0·004 OD per hour.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Fig. 1 a. Analysis of family DFNB.01. i, Pedigree of the family. ii, SSCP patterns of exon 7 of MYO7A gene. A homozygous variant (lower band) can be seen in lanes 1–3 (patients II.1, II.2 and II.3), heterozygous patterns (lower and upper band) in lanes 4–5 (patients' mother I.2 and ...
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0003-2670
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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