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  • 1
    ISSN: 1744-313X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Sequence analysis of two independently isolated Eβk cDNA clones revealed that the Eβk molecule is identical to the Eβb molecule at the NH2-terminus. These data resolve a discrepancy between previously published amino acid and nucleotide sequences and indicate that the Eβ NH2-terminus is not as polymorphic as was once believed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Inc.
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Secreted IgM is a potent adjuvant that concentrates antigen into secondary lymphoid organs and initiates antibody responses, germinal centre formation and is crucial in resolving infections. The current studies investigated the influence of specific IgM on both the quantity and quality of antibody produced in response to T-dependent and T-independent antigens. The addition of IgM to either antigen had no significant effect on the titre or duration of antibody responses. However, the presence of specific IgM led to accelerated affinity maturation when mice were challenged with low doses of IgM-containing immune complexes (IgM-IC) of T-dependent antigens compared with antigen alone. Interestingly, the administration of higher concentrations of IgM-IC increased follicular deposition of antigen but did not result in accelerated affinity maturation or in higher antibody affinities. The administration of IgM complexed with T-independent antigens had no effect on antibody titre, duration or affinity maturation, despite increased antigen deposition in lymphoid follicles. Together, these results demonstrate that IgM accelerates affinity maturation in immune responses to T-dependent antigens and implies an antigen optimum exists for the generation of high affinity antibodies. The data also suggest IgM plays an important role in the induction of CD4 T cells, facilitating germinal centre formation and function.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Maximal proliferative responses were observed ac lower responder cell densities in alloantigen-primed lymphocyte populations when restimulated with the specific priming cell than when restimulated with other allogeneic cells. This relationship was due to the larger number of lymphocytes within the primed population which responded to the specific sensitizing cell than to unrelated stimulator cells. As a result, at high response cell densities, stimulator cells unrelated to the specific sensitizing cells elicited a disproportionately high response relative to the rwpoiwe stimulated by the specific cells. Restimulation of decreasing number of primed lymphocytes gave a more accurate representation of the stimulatory capacity of different cells. Because primed populations contain a larger number of lymphocytes that respond to the specific stimulator than to other Stimulators, responses of primed lymphocytes could be made operationally monospecific. Limiting dilution analysis demonstrated that low numbers of primed cells were stimulated by the specific sensitizing cells but not by unrelated stimulator cells.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Mouse lymphocytes that have been primed in vitro against alloantigens show a specific increase in cells reactive to the priming antigens in mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) and include cells that are specifically cytotoxic in vitro. The primed population also contains cells capable of causing rejection of skin grafts when injected into nude mice. Functional enrichment of cells capable of rejecting skin grafts bearing specific alloantigens and depletion of cells capable of rejecting a third-party graft have been shown. Priming the cells a second time in vitro may result in a moderate enrichment of cells capable of rejecting the specific graft and depletion of cells reactive to third-party skin compared with once-primed cells. These findings support the prediction that the MLR is an in vitro model of allograft response in vivo.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Populations of mouse lymphocytes enriched in specific alloreactive cells by priming in a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) include cells which, when injected into congenic nude mice, enable them to make alloantibody after immunization. Helper cells for the priming H-2 alloantigins (H-2b or H-2k) were enriched relative to helper tells for the other H-2 type. Furthermore, the alloantibody responses of nude mice reconstituted with lymphocytes primed twice in vitro were virtually monospecific for the priming alloantigens. These studies suggest that lymphocytes that proliferate in MLR include lymphocytes capable of giving specific help for H-2 antigens in vivo. Nude mice reconstituted with MLR-primed lymphocytes, made less antibody to bacteriophage T4 and x than mice reconstituted with unprimed cells, and fewer mice responded. Priming of cells a second time in MLR further depleted the population of phage helper cells. Similar results were sometimes, but not always, obtained when testing reconstituted nude mice for their ability to make anti-sheep erythrocyte (SRBC) responses. These results suggest that lymphocytes primed against H-2b or H-2k alloantigens do not have specificity for antigens of T4 or x. These alloreactive cells may also lack specificity for SRBC. However, the results do not allow a definitive conclusion to be drawn.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Sensitization of lymphocytes against allogeneic cells in vitro results in significant enrichment of alloreactive lymphocytes. Such enrichment was found to profoundly influence the Conditions for measuring proliferative responses. Fewer primed lymphocytes than unprimed ones had to be cultured to favor optimal proliferation. Second, proliferate responses could be detected using 10 to 20 times fewer primed responding cells than when using unprimed responders. Finally, although responses of both unprimed and primed lymphocytes were dependent on the number of stimulator cells in culture, the primary mechanism(s) through which this dependence was expressed appeared to differ. The results demonstrate that, under the same conditions, comparisons of responses of two populations that contain different proportions of reactive lymphocytes may not be justified.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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