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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-09-26
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Abstract: Precision medicine is also possible for infectious diseases as shown for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, especially if different options are available. In hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, treatment indication as well as the choice of treatment and the decisions to stop treatment are based on viral markers and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Future therapies for HBV infection aiming for functional cure or even virus elimination may be even more personalized and have to take into account the immune status of a given patient. Such treatment modalities might also increase the chance for successful treatment of chronic hepatitis delta where treatment options are still very limited. Some new therapeutic concepts targeting host receptors or host enzymes are promising, but may require individualized approaches. Chronic hepatitis C is a good example for precision medicine based on viral and host factors. However, the main reason for individualized direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment is to save costs. As DAAs are effective in more than 95% of patients, elimination of HCV seems to be possible at the level of a given country or even on a global scale. However, owing to high reinfection rates in high-risk groups and limited availability of antiviral therapy in many high endemic countries, it must still be decided whether an HCV vaccine or pre-exposure prophylaxis is required to achieve this goal. Hepatitis E is an emerging topic as this is the most frequent acute hepatitis virus infection. It can result in a chronic infection in immunosuppressed individuals. Treatment options are still limited and individualized management is based on tailoring immunosuppressive therapy and therapy with ribavirin. Thus, personalized therapy of hepatitis E virus infection is still limited.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28631044
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Keywords: Key words: Proinflammatory cytokines — LS180 cell —MUC genes — Mucin.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Objectives and Design: Proinflammatory cytokines and a defective mucus layer are involved in the pathogenesis of colitis. Therefore, we determined cytokine effects on MUC gene expression and mucin secretion.¶Materials and Methods: LS180 cells were characterized by light and electron microscopy and subsequently exposed to interleukin 1 (IL-1, 1 ng/ml), interleukin 6 (IL-6, 10 ng/ml), or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, 10 ng/ml). MUC gene (MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6) mRNA expression was assessed by RT-PCR, the encoded proteins were identified by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting, and the released mucins were isolated and chromatographically characterized.¶Results: Thirty to 40% of the cells contained intracellular mucin granules. Incubation with IL-1 transiently stimulated the mRNA expression of MUC2 and MUC5AC, whereas IL-6 induced an early response of MUC2, MUC5B and MUC6. TNFα upregulated the expression of MUC2 and MUC5B for 3 hours, and had no effect on the expression of MUC 5AC and MUC6. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting confirmed TNFα effects on MUC2 and MUC5AC on the protein levels. All cytokines stimulated the release of less glycosylated mucins and considerably modulated their carbohydrate composition.¶Conclusion: Our data demonstrate differential cytokine effects on mucin synthesis, secretion and composition. These alterations may contribute to the defective mucus layer in colitis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1523-5378
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background and Aims.  H. pylori infection results in an increased epithelial apoptosis in gastritis and duodenal ulcer patients. We investigated the role and type of activation of caspases in H. pylori-induced apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells.Methods.  Differentiated human gastric cancer cells (AGS) and human gastric mucous cell primary cultures were incubated with H. pylori for 0.5–24 hours in RPMI 1640 medium, and the effects on cell viability, epithelial apoptosis, and activity of caspases were monitored. Apoptosis was analyzed by detection of DNA-fragments by Hoechst stain®, DNA-laddering, and Histone-ELISA. Activities of caspases were determined in fluorogenic assays and by Western blotting. Cleavage of BID and release of cytochrome c were analyzed by Western blot. Significance of caspase activation was investigated by preincubation of gastric epithelial cells with cell permeable specific caspase inhibitors.Results.  Incubation of gastric epithelial cells with H. pylori caused a time and concentration dependent induction of DNA fragmentation (3-fold increase), cleavage of BID, release of cytochrome c and a concomittant sequential activation of caspase-9 (4-fold), caspase-8 (2-fold), caspase-6 (2-fold), and caspase-3 (6-fold). No effects on caspase-1 and -7 were observed. Activation of caspases preceded the induction of DNA fragmentation. Apoptosis could be inhibited by prior incubation with the inhibitors of caspase-3, -8, and -9, but not with that of caspase-1.Conclusions.  Activation of certain caspases and activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway are essential for H. pylori induced apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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