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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) ; insulin receptor ; linkage analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The cloning of the insulin receptor cDNA has permitted the definition of restriction fragment length polymorphisms at that locus. These polymorphisms were used to study the role of the insulin receptor in four pedigrees with maturity onset diabetes of the young through linkage analyses. When each pedigree was individually analysed, no linkage was demonstrated in the two larger pedigrees, implying that an insulin receptor defect was not responsible for the predisposition to diabetes in these pedigrees. One of these pedigrees was known to be hypoinsulinaemic, while insulin levels were unavailable in the second pedigree. In the two smaller pedigrees, however, a single haplotype cosegregated with diabetes. One of these pedigrees is known to be hyperinsulinaemic. The small size of the pedigrees which demonstrated cosegregation precluded statistical proof of linkage. Nonetheless, the presence of an uncommon insertional polymorphism which cosegregated with diabetes in both pedigrees was improbable and suggested that this insertion could be responsible for diabetes in these families. This study thus may be additional evidence for heterogeneity in maturity onset diabetes of the young. For the two larger pedigrees, the insulin gene and HLA region have already been eliminated as genetic markers. This study provides data which eliminate a third candidate gene in these two pedigrees.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Summer and winter climates simulated with the ECMWF (cycle 33) model at spectral scales T21, T42, T63 and T106 are analyzed to determine the impact of changes in horizontal resolution on atmospheric water vapor, clouds, convection, and precipitation. Qualitative changes in many moist processes occur in the transition from T21 to T42, especially in the tropics; at higher resolutions mostly incremental variations from patterns established at T42 result. Large-scale tropical moist processes are simulated more realistically at T21 than at finer resolutions, possibly reflecting a mismatch between the finer-scale dynamics and the scales at which the underlying assumptions of the physical parameterizations apply. Global precipitation increases monotonically with resolution, as a consequence of increasing convection. Global cloud cover, however, decreases in the transition from T21 to T42 due to drying of the tropics, but then increases slightly at finer resolutions. These small global increases are an outcome of compensating changes in different regions: decreases in cloud cover due to drying of the atmosphere at low latitudes are offset by high-latitude increases resulting from enhanced relative humidity associated with an intensifying atmospheric cold bias at finer resolutions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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