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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: isosorbide dinitrate ; diazepam ; chlormethiazole ; infusion systems
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The loss of isosorbide dinitrate from aqueous solutions stored in plastic infusion bags and/or infused through plastic giving sets was investigated. During simulated infusions, the loss of isosorbide dinitrate was found to be flow-rate dependent. The clinical and pharmacokinetic significance of this loss is discussed. Infusion of isosorbide dinitrate from a glass syringe through high density polyethylene tubing overcame the loss associated with its adinistration via plastic infusion bags and intravenous giving sets. This method was also applied successfully to minimise the previously reported loss of diazepam and chlormethiazole during infusions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: acetylsalicylic acid ; platelet function ; salicylate ; controlled release formulation ; single dosing ; continuous dosing ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The extent to which a controlled release acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulation inhibited platelet function has been evaluated in single and chronic dosing studies. In the single dose study, the platelet inhibitory effect of the controlled release formulation was compared with that of an equivalent dose of soluble ASA and an equimolar dose of sodium salicylate (SA). In the chronic dosing study, ASA dose-response curves for platelet function, including cyclooxygenase activity, were determined for various doses (20–1300 mg) of the controlled release (enteric coated pellets) ASA formulation taken by volunteers daily for one week. Platelet function was assessed by the degree of inhibition of aggregation for several aggregating agents, and the degree of inhibition of activity of platelet cyclooxygenase quantified by the estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Plasma ASA and SA concentrations were also determined in each study. The controlled release product inhibited platelet function to the same extent as an equimolar dose of soluble ASA, but did so with much lower and sometimes undetectable peak systemic plasma ASA concentrations. SA, the direct metabolite of aspirin, did not have any effect on platelet function. The ASA dose-platelet function response curves obtained from chronic dosing with the controlled release formulation appeared to be similar to those reported previously for the soluble product. The inhibition of platelet function appeared to be unrelated to plasma ASA concentrations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: acetylsalicylic acid ; platelet function ; salicylate ; controlled release formulation ; single dosing ; continuous dosing ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The extent to which a controlled release acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulation inhibited platelet function has been evaluated in single and chronic dosing studies. In the single dose study, the platelet inhibitory effect of the controlled release formulation was compared with that of an equivalent dose of soluble ASA and an equimolar dose of sodium salicylate (SA). In the chronic dosing study, ASA dose-response curves for platelet function, including cyclooxygenase activity, were determined for various doses (20–1300 mg) of the controlled release (enteric coated pellets) ASA formulation taken by volunteers daily for one week. Platelet function was assessed by the degree of inhibition of aggregation for several aggregating agents, and the degree of inhibition of activity of platelet cyclooxygenase quantified by the estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Plasma ASA and SA concentrations were also determined in each study. The controlled release product inhibited platelet function to the same extent as an equimolar dose of soluble ASA, but did so with much lower and sometimes undetectable peak systemic plasma ASA concentrations. SA, the direct metabolite of aspirin, did not have any effect on platelet function. The ASA dose-platelet function response curves obtained from chronic dosing with the controlled release formulation appeared to be similar to those reported previously for the soluble product. The inhibition of platelet function appeared to be unrelated to plasma ASA concentrations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: nitroglycerin ; plasma concentration ; metabolites ; degradation ; plasma protein binding ; sample collection ; erythrocytes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The disposition in vitro of nitroglycerin (GTN) and its metabolites in erythrocyte suspensions, plasma and blood has been studied using labelled (3H) and unlabelled GTN and GTN metabolites separated by HPLC. GTN was rapidly metabolised (t1/2 3 min) to dinitro-metabolites and subsequently to the mononitronitrates in erythrocyte suspensions containing a therapeutic concentration of GTN (0.8–10 ng/ml). The metabolism of GTN and its dinitro-metabolites was concentration dependent. GTN and its dinitro-metabolites were plasma protein bound (11–60%). They had an apparent erythrocyte-plasma partition coefficient in the range 0.6 to 0.9. The metabolism of GTN by erythrocytes was partially inhibited by the presence of the dinitro-metabolites of GTN. The metabolism of GTN in blood samples collected from patients could be stopped by adding the collected blood to chilled tubes containing the enzyme inhibitor iodoacetamide.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
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