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  • 1
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A lot of in-house polymerase chain reaction assays have been reported for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis and disseminated candidosis. Encouraging results have been published to anticipate the diagnosis over the conventional microbiological methods. However, the absence of standardized methods has led to diverging results. As a consequence, these tests are not recognized as consensual diagnostic criteria, in contrast with some antigenemia detection kits. The major breakthrough for improving the results of these methods is the emergence of real-time technologies. This markedly improves the reliability of the PCR results by dramatically decreasing the risk of false positive results due to PCR products carryover. Moreover, using the quantitative results provided by this technique, this allows to rapidly compare the efficiency of primers, probes, and DNA extraction methods. Therefore, the hope is to identify the more specific and sensitive parameters to implement comparative studies. Automated DNA extraction should also be useful to achieve this goal.Whatever sophisticated technology is used, we still have to define the meaning of detecting nucleic acids in a given clinical sample. This seems simple in normally sterile anatomical sites but less obvious for example in respiratory specimens for invasive aspergillosis or in blood for candidosis in heavily colonized patients. Additional studies of the kinetics of fungal DNA are needed. The development of real-time technology should improve our knowledge in order to give the clinicians informative clues for making a decision.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mutations in the promoter region of the factor IX gene result in hemophilia B Leyden, which is characterized by considerable improvement in the disease after puberty. We have found that distinct nucleotide substitutions at the -6 position in the Leyden-specific (LS) region are associated with a different severity of hemophilia B. The proband (aged 2) from one family is a severe hemophiliac with factor IX activity (F.IXC) and antigen (F.IXAg) levels less than 1.0U/dl. F.IXC and F.IXAg levels in two affected uncles are approximately 30% of normal levels. The LS region was targeted for analysis because the phenotypes suggested the inheritance of a factor IX Leyden gene. An abnormal TaqI digestion pattern was found in amplified DNA from the proband, and sequencing showed a G (-6) to C transversion that was linked to the disease in the family. In another family, two brothers (aged 8 and 9) suffer from mild hemophilia with F.IXC ranging from 7 to 10 U/dl and F.IXAg from 3 to 4 U/dl. They are the only documented members of the family with a bleeding tendency. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis on amplified fragments from one of the patient's genomic DNA corresponding to the 8 exons and flanking sequences of the factor IX gene suggested a defect only in a segment from the 5′ region. This segment showed an altered TaqI digestion pattern, and sequencing demonstrated a G(-6) to A transition that was traced to the patients's mother and a grandmother. The different phenotypes associated with the G (-6) to A purine nucleotide transition compared with a G(-6) to C transversion provide evidence that this area is directly involved in the regulation of the human factor IX gene expression in vivo by binding of regulatory factors. The ability to predict that the conditions of a hemophilia B patient will improve with age has important implications for genetic counseling of the family. Therefore, the LS region should always be included when scanning the factor IX gene for mutations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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