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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Internal Medicine ; Rheumatology ; Sports Medicine ; Medicine & Public Health ; Rheumatology ; Internal Medicine ; Sports Medicine ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    Edition: 2nd edition.
    ISBN: 9781848828568
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Seven polymorphic markers comprising a single linkage group were assigned to rat Chromosome (Chr) 5 by linkage analysis of the progeny of an F2 intercross of Fischer (F344/N) and Lewis (LEW/N) inbred rats. Three genes, α-L-fucosidase 1 (FUCA1), mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), and glucose transporter (GLUT1), were mapped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Two genes, glucose transporter (GTG3) and elastase II (ELAII), one pseudogene for α tubulin (TUBAPS), and one sequence related to the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase gene (PFKFBP1-related sequence) were mapped by simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphism analysis. The loci are in the following order: SOD2, GTG3/GLUT1, FUCA1, ELAII/PFKFBP1-related sequence, and TUBAPS. This linkage group covered 68.3 cM of rat Chr 5. The SSR markers were highly polymorphic in 13 inbred rat strains (SHR/N, WKY/N, MNR/N, MR/N, LOU/MN, BN/SsN, BUF/N, WBB1/N, WBB2/N, ACI/N, LER/N, F344/N, and LEW/N). These markers, located on rat Chr 5, will be useful in genetic studies of inbred rats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Seven polymorphic markers identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, including markers for six genes—DRD1L (dopamine receptor, D1-like-2), GLUKA (glucokinase), PF4 (platelet factor 4), ALB (albumin), AFP (α-fetoprotein), and BSP (bone sialoprotein)—and one anonymous locus (D14N52), were mapped to a single 67-cM linkage group with F2 intercross progeny of F344/N and LEW/N inbred rat strains. Two of these markers, ALB and AFP, have previously been assigned to rat Chromosome (Chr) 14, allowing assignment of this entire linkage group. Five of the markers—DRD1L, PF4, ALB, AFP, and PBSP—have been physically mapped to a large region of human Chr 4 encompassing the p arm and the q arm to band q28. Homologs of two of the markers, ALB and AFP, have been mapped to Chr 5 in the mouse. Comparison of human Chr 4 with the homologous regions on Chr 14 of the rat and Chr 5 of the mouse indicated that linkage conservation with human Chr 4 extends over a greater region in the rat than in the mouse. The markers described here were found to be highly polymorphic in twelve inbred strains (F344/N, LEW/N, ACI/N, BUF/N, BN/SsN, LOU/MN, MNR/N, MR/N, SHR/N, WBB1/N, WBB2/N, and WKY/N). These polymorphic markers should be useful in genetic linkage studies of important phenotypes in rats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A genetic linkage map of seven polymorphic markers was created with F2 intercross progeny of F344/N and LEW/N rats and assigned to rat Chromosome (Chr) 18. Five of the markers described were defined by simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs) associated with five genes: transthyretin (TTR), trypsin inhibitor-like protein (TILP), β2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), olfactory neuron-specific G protein (OLF), and gap junction protein (GJA1). One marker was defined by a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) detected with a probe for the human colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) gene. The D18N1R locus was defined by an anonymous DNA fragment amplified by the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique with a single short primer. These seven DNA loci formed a single genetic linkage group 30.4 cM in length with the following order: TTR-6.8 cM-D18N1R-9.1 cM-TILP-4.3 cM-CSF1R-0 cM-ADRB2-10.2 cM-OLF-0 cM-GJA1. The five SSLP markers were highly polymorphic. In a total of 13 inbred rat strains analyzed (F344/ N, LEW/N, LOU/MN, WBB1/N, WBB2/N, MR/N, MNR/N, ACI/N, SHR/N, WKY/N, BN/SsN, BUF/N, and LER/N), three to six alleles were detected for each marker. Remarkable linkage conservation was detected between the region of rat Chr 18 mapped and a region of mouse Chr 18. However, genes associated with these markers have been mapped to three different human chromosomes (Chrs 5, 6, and 18). The markers described here should be useful for genetic mapping studies and genetic monitoring of inbred rat strains.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: linkage analysis ; serine dehydratase ; plasminogen activator inhibitor ; simple sequence repeats ; microsatellites ; rat chromosome 12
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Four PCR-typable polymorphic markers were mapped to rat chromosome 12 by linkage analysis of F2 intercross progeny of Fischer (F344/N) and Lewis (LEW/N) rat strains. The markers formed a single linkage group, covering 27.7 cM, with the following order and distance between markers: plasminogen activator inhibitor (Planh)—0.0 cM—phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-related sequence 2 (Pepckr2)—15.4 cM—anonymous marker (D12N155)—12.3 cM—serine dehydratase (Sdh). All markers were identified and genotyped by PCR analysis of simple sequence repeats. The gene encoding Planh was previously assigned to rat chromosome 12, which allowed us to assign the entire linkage group to this chromosome. These markers were highly polymorphic in 13 additional inbred rat strains (BUF/N, BN/SsN, WKY/N, MNR/N, LER/N, WBB1/N, WBB2/N, MR/N, LOU/MN, SHR/N, ACI/N, SR/Jr, and SS/Jr). These markers should be useful tools for further genetic studies in rats.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: linkage analysis ; serine dehydratase ; plasminogen activator inhibitor ; simple sequence repeats ; microsatellites ; rat chromosome 12
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Four PCR-typable polymorphic markers were mapped to rat chromosome 12 by linkage analysis of F2 intercross progeny of Fischer (F344/N) and Lewis (LEW/N) rat strains. The markers formed a single linkage group, covering 27.7 cM, with the following order and distance between markers: plasminogen activator inhibitor (Planh)—0.0 cM—phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-related sequence 2 (Pepckr2)—15.4 cM—anonymous marker (D12N155)—12.3 cM—serine dehydratase (Sdh). All markers were identified and genotyped by PCR analysis of simple sequence repeats. The gene encoding Planh was previously assigned to rat chromosome 12, which allowed us to assign the entire linkage group to this chromosome. These markers were highly polymorphic in 13 additional inbred rat strains (BUF/N, BN/SsN, WKY/N, MNR/N, LER/N, WBB1/N, WBB2/N, MR/N, LOU/MN, SHR/N, ACI/N, SR/Jr, and SS/Jr). These markers should be useful tools for further genetic studies in rats.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The nude trait in the rat is transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner and is associated with thymic aplasia, T-cell deficiency, and hairlessness. Congenic rats homozygous for the RNU (Rowett nude) locus are important models in the study of inflammatory disease, tumor growth, and transplant rejection. The RNU locus has not been previously mapped, and the nature of the gene product is unknown. To determine the map location of this gene, a single F344.rnu/rnu (athymic nude congenic Fischer rat) male congenic rat was bred with 3 LEW/N (NIH stock Lewis rat) female rats to produce F1 progeny. Twelve F1 brother-sister breeding pairs were established. Forty-nine phenotypically nude F2 offspring (198 total) were obtained. Linkage analysis done on F2 DNA revealed highly significant cosegregation between the nude phenotype and eight polymorphic markers located on Chromosome (Chr) 10. The tightest linkages were with: MYH3 (embryonic, skeletal myosin heavy chain) and SHBG (sex hormone-binding globulin), giving 2 point lod scores of 20.2, and 20.0, respectively. The map order and map distances, determined by multipoint linkage calculations, were: RR24-(16.1 cM)-MYH3-(3.5 cM)-SHBG-(4.7 cM)-RNU-(11.9 cM)-F16F2-(24.1 cM)-CLATP (citrate lyase ATPase)-(2.4 cM)-ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme)/PPY (pancreatic polypeptide)-(14.1 cM)-RR1023. The position of the RNU locus in the rat corresponds closely with that of the recently reported nu locus in the mouse. This finding suggests that the nude phenotype in the rat and the mouse arise from defects in homologous genes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: neuroendocrine ; cytokines ; adhesion ; transin ; stromelysin ; collagenase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Endothelial cells play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory arthritis in humans such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as well as experimental animal models such as streptococcal cell wall (SCW) arthritis in Lewis (LEW/N) rats. This review summarizes data in support of this concept. The earliest apparent abnormalities in synovial tissues of patients with RA and Lewis rats with SCW arthritis appear to reflect microvascular endothelial cell activation or injury. At the molecular level, the abnormalities include enhanced expression by endothelial cells of activation markers such as class II major histocompatibility complex antigens, phosphotyrosine, leukocyte adhesion molecules, oncoproteins such as c-Fos and c-Myc, and metalloproteinases such as collagenase and transin/stromelysin. The development of severe, chronic, destructive arthritis is dependent upon thymic-derived lymphocytes and is accompanied by tumorlike proliferation of cells in the synovial connective tissue stroma (blood vessels and fibroblastlike cells), which results in resorptive destruction of bone and cartilage. Multiple criteria support the analogy to a neoplastic process. Paracrine and autocrine factors such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and heparin-binding fibroblast growth factors (HBGF, FGF) appear to play important roles in the generation of these lesions. Finally, in addition to the autocrine and paracrine regulatory factors, neuroendocrine factors, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, appear to be involved in the counterregulation of the inflammatory process. The counterregulatory effects are mediated, in part, by inhibition of endothelial cell activation by corticosteroids.
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