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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We report here on the detailed distribution of VIP-like immuno-reactivity in the rat brain by a combined immunological approach using immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. VIP-like immunoreactivity was widely distributed. Cell bodies and fibres were noted principally in the cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, suprachiasmatic nucleus and brain stem. In addition dense areas of immunoreactive fibres and terminals were seen in the stria terminalis and its bed nucleus. The fibres appear to form a major VIP-containing pathway which links the amygdaloid complex with the hypothalamus. Although the functional significance of VIP in the brain is unknown, its presence in the amygdala, the hypothalamus and their linking pathway, as well as its pharmacological actions suggest that is may play a role in neuroendocrine regulation and the modulation of hypothalamic function.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  Solitary long terminal repeats (LTRs) of the human endogenous retroviruses K family (HERV-K) have been found to be coexpressed with sequences of closely located genes. We identified forty-three HERV-K LTR-like elements in primates (African great apes, two Old World monkeys, and two New World monkeys) and analyzed them along with human-specific HERV-K LTRs. We report detection of HERV-K LTR-like elements from New World monkeys, as represented by the squirrel monkey and the night monkey, for the first time. Analysis revealed a high degree of sequence homology with human-specific HERV-K LTRs. A phylogenetic tree obtained by the neighbor-joining method revealed that five sequence (SMS-1, 2, 5, 6, 7) from the squirrel monkey and three sequences (NM6-4, 5, 9) from the night monkey are more closely related to human-specific HERV-K LTRs than they are to those of apes (the chimpanzee and gorilla) and Old World monkeys (the African green monkey and rhesus monkey). The findings are consistent with the concept the HERV-K LTR-like elements have proliferated independently and recently in the genome of primates, and that such proliferation has been more recent in Homo sapiens and in these representatives of New World monkeys than in some Old World monkeys.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  A new family (HERV-W) ofhuman endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) has recently been described that is related to MSRV (multiple sclerosis related retrovirus) sequences that have been identified in particles recovered from monocyte cultures from patients with multiple sclerosis. We investigated the pol fragment of HERV-W on the human X chromosome by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a monochromosomal somatic cell hybrid DNA panel and compared these with related sequences in the genome database. We identified three novel sequences on the human X chromosome, HWXI, HWX3, and HWX5, which have a high degree of homology (88–98%) with the MSRV pol fragment and with seven other sequences. HWX5, like MSRV, has an uninterrupted open reading frame. Phylogenetic analysis showed HWX5 to be related to the HWX1, HWX3, and BAC clone B353C18 sequences with 91–93% homology. The ratio of synonymous to nonsynonymous substitutions indicated that negative selective pressure is acting on HWX5. Further studies on the structure and expression of this sequence are indicated.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Neuropeptides ; Amygdala ; Immunohistochemistry ; Schizophrenia ; Huntington's chorea
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The location of the neuropeptides methionine-enkephalin (ME), neurotensin (NT), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) within the amygdaloid complex of healthy human individuals, schizophrenics and patients suffering from Huntington's chorea was studied qualitatively by means of immunohistochemistry. VIP-like immunoreactivity (IR) was present predominantly in a dense cluster of fibers and terminals in the central amygdaloid nucleus. ME-IR was observed in fibers, terminals and cell bodies in the same subnucleus, exhibiting a characteristical distribution pattern. NT-positive cell bodies were situated within the center of the central amygdaloid nucleus, fibers and terminals being encountered mainly at the periphery. NPY-IR was found to be evenly distributed throughout the amygdala. Distribution and staining intensity of ME, NPY and NT in the amygdala showed no qualitatively recognizable difference between the normal and schizophrenic specimens, whereas VIP-IR appeared to be slightly increased in the central amygdaloid nucleus of schizophrenics. In the choreic cases, the considerably shrunken amygdala exhibited only very low staining intensity of the four investigated neuropeptides.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Activities of enzyme markers of subcellular organelles have been measured in brain tissue from subjects with Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD) and Huntington's disease (HD). Significant increases in the activity of the lysosomal enzyme β-glucuronidase were observed in both ATD temporal cortex and HD putamen. It is suggested that β-glucuronidase activity may be a useful biochemical indicator of cellular damage in the CNS. A significant reduction in neutral α-glucosidase activity was observed in ATD temporal cortex and HD putamen. This change may reflect an alteration in glycoconjugate processing and may relate to the susceptibility of neurones to the degenerative processes of ATD and HD.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Those who as adults will be admitted to a psychiatric ward with a psychotic illness can be distinguished (on the basis of group differences) from others by their behaviour and academic performance at he ages of 7 and 11 years. Pre-schizophrenic boys are anxious and hostile towards adults and peeres at the age of 7 years and show poor concentration. By age 11 years these boys are also rated as depressed, and pre-schizophrenic girls as depressed and withdrawn. Pre-affective psychotic boys show minor changes (for example an increase in hostiliti and restlessness) at age 7 years, although these features are not obvious at age 11 years. Abnormalities that in some respects resemble those in pre-schizophrenic boys are present at age 11 years in a group of females who will be admitted to psychiatric units with non-psychotic diagnoses by the age of 28 years. Academic impairments (including speech and reading difficulities) at ages 7, 11 and 16 years are more severe in pre-schizophrenics than in the other groups. Schizophrenics-to-be are slow to develop contininence and show poor coordination and vision at age 7 years, and are rated clumsty at age 16 years. Psychosis reflects a disturbance of spects of central nervous system function that are time-dependent and in certain respects gender specific. It is argued that the psychoses represent extremens of variatiion in agene (or genes) that differs between the sexes and controls the timung of development of the two ceraral hemispheres. The diversity associated with this gen(s) may be maintained by selective pressures that have led to the neotenic process of endophalisation in humans and theevolution of language.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Résumé Des lésions électrolytiques, soit unilatérales soit bilatérales, ont été pratiquées dans des cerveaux de rats, dans la région du locus coeruleus. Trois semaines après, la teneur en 3-méthoxy-4-hydroxyphénylglycol (MHPG) des deux cortices cérébraux a été analysée par chromatographie à gaz. Les lésions unilatérales ont réduit la teneur en MHPG du cortex ipsilatéral, et après les lésions bilatérales la réduction ent lieu dans les deux cortices.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 38 (1982), S. 1275-1282 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Conclusions Genes may be relevant not only to predisposition but also to the type of schizophrenic illness which occur, and determine whether symptoms of the type I or type II syndromes or a combination of the two are the major manifestations. Both syndromes, howerver, might be caused by a single agent, e.g.a. virus. Thus, amongst the population of patients at risk there is a group who experience a primary neurochemical disturbance (e.g. of dopaminergic transmission). This becomes manifest in positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations and thought disorder) and might result from an affinity of the virus for a particular neurochemical structure (e.g. the D2 dopamine receptor or a molecule concerned in its regulation). Within this population however, is a sub-group that is predisposed to a more malignant and widespread disease. In these patients the virus gains further footholds in the nervous system, with the consequence that the disease acquires the characteristics of a chronic encephalitis. It is in these cases that there is evidence of structural change (although the site of the presumed cell loss has yet to be determined) and when present this change is associated with intellectual impairment and negative symptoms (the type II syndrome). Thus the disturbance underlying the type I syndrome is a neurochemical one which accounts for the reversibility of some schizophrenic symptoms and illnesses, and their response to neuroleptic drugs. It is compatible with Bleuler's view of schizophrenia as a functional psychosis which can be clearly distinguished from dementia. The change underlying the type II syndrome is progressive and irreversible and accounts for poor long-term outcome. To this form of illness Kraepelin's term dementia praecox can be applied with the term dementia retaining its contemporary connotation of organic psychosis.
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