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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Two important aspects of striatal function, exploratory behaviour and motor co-ordination, require the integrity of the dopamine D4 receptor subtype. These receptors are also implicated in the pathophysiology of certain neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the distribution of D4 receptors in the striatum has not yet been described and this situation impairs our understanding of the anatomical substrate in which D4 receptors function. We developed a D4 receptor-specific anti-body that has permitted us to investigate the regional and cellular localization of the receptor in the neostriatum of the rat, mouse, cat and monkey. The subcellular distribution and the synaptic organization of this receptor were also determined in the rat striatum. We found moderate levels of D4 receptor expression in the caudoputamen and lower levels in the nucleus accumbens. These receptors were expressed in cell bodies and in the neuropil and were heterogeneously distributed among different striatal compartments, being more abundant in striosomes than in the matrix. At the subcellular level, the receptor immunoreactivity was mainly localized to dendritic shafts and spines. The prominent immunoreactivity observed in the striosomes indicates that integrative processes involved in D4-mediated limbic behaviours occurs through the striosomes rather than accumbens, whereas the motor behaviour is based in the striatal matrix.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Key words Opiate dependence ; Opiate withdrawal ; Nitric oxide ; Nitric oxide synthase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The opiate withdrawal induced by administration of naloxone to morphine-dependent mice correlates with an increment of calcium- dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the cerebellum. L-NAME, an irreversible competitive inhibitor of NOS (0.5, 5, 25, 50 mg/kg) injected sc. 45 min. prior to naloxone significantly reduced the number of escape jumps and other motor symptoms of abstinence. In addition, L-NAME also decreased NOS activity in cerebellum. L-arginine, but not D-arginine, when coadministered with L-NAME, prevented both the inhibition of NOS activity and the reduction of withdrawal symptoms induced by L-NAME in morphine-withdrawn animals. These results demonstrate a hyperactivity of the L-arginine: NO pathway in opiate withdrawal and suggests the possibility of a therapeutic use of NOS inhibitors in this state.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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