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  • 1
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Bombesin ; Brain ; Gastrin-releasing peptide ; Immunocytochemistry ; Rainbow trout ; Teleost
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0309-1651
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Cell Biology International Reports 10 (1986), S. 223-230 
    ISSN: 0309-1651
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary This report describes an azoospermic male carrying a Y/autosome translocation. The patient had a 46,X,t(Y;10)(q12;p13) chromosome complement in a lymphocyte culture. The cytogenetic study of this patient is described, together with testicular histology, spermiogram, hormone levels, and clinical history.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Karyotype evolution ; Genome evolution ; In situ hybridization ; Plant breeding ; Alien genes ; Triticum ventricosum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Three lines of the tetraploid wheat Aegilops ventricosa Tausch (2n=4x=28), which contains good resistance to eyespot, were analysed using fluorescent in situ hybridization. Probes used included rDNA, cloned repeated sequences from wheat and rye, simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) and total genomic DNA. The banding patterns produced could be used to distinguish most chromosome arms and will aid in the identification of Ae. ventricosa chromosomes or chromosome segments in breeding programmes. All lines had a single major 18S-25S rDNA site, the nucleolar organizing region (NOR) in chromosome 5N and several minor sites of 18S-25S rDNA and 5S rDNA. A 1NL.3DL, 1NS.3DS translocation was identified, and other minor differences were found between the lines.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Triticum aestivum L. ; Microsatellites ; C banding ; N banding ; Genome organization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Clusters of four simple sequence repeats (SSRs), AAC, AAG, AG and CAT, have been mapped physically to hexaploid wheat chromosomes; 15—24-bp synthetic oligonucleotides were labelled by random-primer labelling and used as probes for fluorescent in situ hybridization with standard formamide and low-salt conditions. AAC hybridized strongly to the pericentromeric regions and several intercalary sites of all seven chromosomes of the B-genome corresponding to N bands and enabling their identification. Most of the AAC sites also co-localize with AAG, although the strength of the AAC and AAG signal was often different at the same location. Not all heterochromatic bands showed AAC signals and a few AAC sites were detected that are neither AAG nor N band positive, revealing the complex and heterogeneous genome organization of wheat and identifying the four most frequent classes of banded chromatin. Clusters characterised by a high concentration of AG repeats were detected on chromosome arms 3BS, 4BL, 5BS and 5BL, adjacent to AAG sites. The only detectable CAT cluster was found on chromosome arm 3BL, making this oligonucleotide valuable in identifying this particular chromosome. SSR in situ hybridization is useful as a diagnostic tool in cytogenetics and for understanding genome organization in wheat.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Triticum timopheevii ; Synaptonemal complex ; Spreading ; Diploidization mechanism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Triticum timopheevii (2n=4x=AtAtGG) is an allotetraploid wheat which shows a diploid-like behaviour at metaphase-I. The synaptic process was analyzed in fully traced spread nuclei at mid-zygotene, late-zygotene and pachytene. The length and type of synaptonemal complexes, as well as the number of bivalent and multivalent associations, were determined in each nucleus. A high number of bivalents per nucleus was detected at all three stages. Nuclei at pachytene showed a lower frequency of multivalents than did zygotene nuclei, which suggests the existence of a pairing correction mechanism. At metaphase-I only homologous bivalents and, rarely, one pair of univalents were observed. Similarities between the diploidization mechanism of T. timopheevii and that of allohexaploid wheat, controlled by chromosome 5B, are discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Fluorescence in situ hybridization ; Multiple probes ; Chromosome pairing ; Meiosis ; Wheat ; Rye
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with multiple probes has been applied to meiotic chromosome spreads derived from ph1b common wheat x rye hybrid plants. The probes used included pSc74 and pSc 119.2 from rye (the latter also hybridizes on wheat, mainly B genome chromosomes), the Ae. squarrosa pAs1 probe, which hybridizes almost exclusively on D genome chromosomes, and wheat rDNA probes pTa71 and pTa794. Simultaneous and sequential FISH with a two-by-two combination of these probes allowed unequivocal identification of all of the rye (R) and most of the wheat (W) chromosomes, either unpaired or involved in pairing. Thus not only could wheat-wheat and wheat-rye associations be easily discriminated, which was already feasible by the sole use of the rye-specific pSc74 probe, but the individual pairing partners could also be identified. Of the wheat-rye pairing observed, which averaged from about 7% to 11% of the total pairing detected in six hybrid plants of the same cross combination, most involved B genome chromosomes (about 70%), and to a much lesser degree, those of the D (almost 17%) and A (14%) genomes. Rye arms 1RL and 5RL showed the highest pairing frequency (over 30%), followed by 2RL (11%) and 4RL (about 8%), with much lower values for all the other arms. 2RS and 5RS were never observed to pair in the sample analysed. Chromosome arms 1RL, 1RS, 2RL, 3RS, 4RS and 6RS were observed to be exclusively bound to wheat chromosomes of the same homoeologous group. The opposite was true for 4RL (paired with 6BS and 7BS) and 6RL (paired with 7BL). 5RL, on the other hand, paired with 4WL arms or segments of them in more than 80% of the cases and with 5WL in the remaining ones. Additional cases of pairing involving wheat chromosomes belonging to more than one homoeologous group occurred with 3RL, 7RS and 7RL. These results, while adding support to previous evidence about the existence of several translocations in the rye genome relative to that of wheat, show that FISH with multiple probes is an efficient method by which to study fundamental aspects of chromosome behaviour at meiosis, such as interspecific pairing. The type of knowledge attainable from this approach is expected to have a significant impact on both theoretical and applied research concerning wheat and related Triticeae.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key wordsTriticum timopheevii ; Synaptonemal ; complex ; Spreading ; Diploidization mechanism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Triticum timopheevii (2n=4x=AtAtGG) is an allotetraploid wheat which shows a diploid-like behaviour at metaphase-I. The synaptic process was analyzed in fully traced spread nuclei at mid-zygotene, late-zygotene and pachytene. The length and type of synaptonemal complexes, as well as the number of bivalent and multivalent associations, were determined in each nucleus. A high number of bivalents per nucleus was detected at all three stages. Nuclei at pachytene showed a lower frequency of multivalents than did zygotene nuclei, which suggests the existence of a pairing correction mechanism. At metaphase-I only homologous bivalents and, rarely, one pair of univalents were observed. Similarities between the diploidization mechanism of T. timopheevii and that of allohexaploid wheat, controlled by chromosome 5B, are discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Many genes governed by thyroid hormone (T3) lack binding sites for its receptor (TR) and are thought to be post-transcriptionally regulated by T3. Here we demonstrate that the HuD gene, which encodes a neurone-specific protein that binds to mRNA and modulates its stability, is regulated by T3. HuD RNA and protein expression were strongly up-regulated in specific areas of the hypothyroid rat brain, and reduced by T3 in rat PC12 and mouse N2a cells containing appropriate TR levels. Furthermore, T3 inhibited the transcription of HuD in run-on assays. Finally, HuD protein bound with high affinity to two sequences in acetylcholinesterase mRNA, and ectopic HuD expression increased its abundance in N2a cells. This is the first report of a gene encoding an mRNA stability regulator that is under T3 control. The results suggest that HuD may mediate some T3 effects by altering the half-life of mRNAs for acetylcholinesterase and other genes.
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