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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Maize ; Sorghum ; Sugarcane ; RFLP ; Synteny
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Comparative mapping within maize, sorghum and sugarcane has previously revealed the existence of syntenic regions between the crops. In the present study, mapping on the sorghum genome of a set of probes previously located on the maize and sugarcane maps allow a detailed analysis of the relationship between maize chromosomes 3 and 8 and sorghum and sugarcane homoeologous regions. Of 49 loci revealed by 46 (4 sugarcane and 42 maize) polymorphic probes in sorghum, 42 were linked and were assigned to linkage groups G (28), E (10) and I (4). On the basis of common probes, a complete co-linearity is observed between sorghum linkage group G and the two sugarcane linkage groups II and III. The comparison between the consensus sorghum/sugarcane map (G/II/III) and the maps of maize chromosomes 3 and 8 reveals a series of linkage blocks within which gene orders are conserved. These blocks are interspersed with non-homoeologous regions corresponding to the central part of the two maize chromosomes and have been reshuffled, resulting in several inversions in maize compared to sorghum and sugarcane. The results emphasize the fact that duplication will considerably complicate precise comparative mapping at the whole genome scale between maize and other Poaceae.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Saccharum officinarum ; Sugarcane cultivars ; Polyploid ; Genetic diversity ; RFLP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Molecular diversity was analysed among 162 clones of sugarcane using DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). One hundred and nine of them were modern cultivars of interspecific origin; most of them were bred in Barbados or in Mauritius. Fifty three were from Saccharum officinarum species, which is the major source of genes in modern cultivars, prevailing over the part of the genome incorporated from the wild species Saccharum spontaneum. Twelve low-copy nuclear DNA probes scattered over the genome were used in combination with one or two restriction enzymes. A total of 399 fragments was identified, 386 of which were polymorphic. Each sugarcane clone displayed a high number of fragments per probe/enzyme combination, illustrating the polyploid constitution of the genome. Among the S. officinarum clones, those from New Guinea had the largest variability and encompassed that present among clones collected from the Indonesian Islands and those known to have been involved in the parentage of modern cultivars. This is in agreement with the hypothesis that New Guinea is the centre of origin of this species. The clones from New Caledonia formed a separate group and could correspond to S. officinarum clones modified through introgression with other members of the ‘Saccharum complex’. Despite the low number of S. officinarum clones used for breeding cultivars, more than 80% of the markers present in the whole S. officinarum sample were also found in modern cultivars due probably to a high heterozygosity related to polyploidy. Among the cultivars, the two main groups, originating from Barbados and Mauritius, were clearly separated. This appeared essentially due to S. spontaneum alleles present in Mauritian cultivars and absent in Barbadan ones, probably in relation to the regular use of early generation interspecific hybrids in the breeding program employed in Mauritius.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Sugarcane cultivars ; Linkage disequilibrium ; Foundation bottleneck ; Interspecific hybrids ; RFLP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Modern sugarcane cultivars are derived from a few interspecific hybrids created early in this century. Linkage disequilibrium was investigated in a population of 59 cultivars representing the most important commercial clones bred in Mauritius as well as a few old cultivars involved in their genealogy. Thirty-eight probes scattered over the sugarcane genome map were used to reveal RFLPs. Forty-two cases of bilocus associations were observed involving a total of 33 loci. Most of them are separated by less than 10 cM. All the corresponding allele couples were found in at least 1 of the originally created cultivars, suggesting that they depict ancient associations. This global disequilibrium is interpreted as the result of the foundation bottleneck related to the first interspecific crosses; the preferential allele associations thus created have been maintained through subsequent crosses when the loci were closely linked. This phenomenon is likely also to apply to genes of agricultural interest. A practical consequence is that markers can be used to track known QTLs in modern breeding materials without the necessity to repeatedly study segregating progenies. This structure gives high value to the correlation between molecular markers and agricultural traits among cultivars.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Saccharum ; Intergeneric hybrids ; Isozymes ; RFLP ; STS-PCR ; In situ hybridization ; rDNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Molecular markers were used to characterise sugarcane intergeneric hybrids between S. officinarum and E. arundinaceus. Very simple diagnostic tools for hybrid identification among the progeny were derived from isozyme electrophoresis and a sequence-tagged PCR. Two enzyme systems (GOT and MDH B) and PCR amplification revealing spacer-size variation in the 5s-rDNA cluster were found most convenient. Specific characterisation of the two genomic components was possible using RFLP and in situ hybridisation. The strong molecular differentiation between S. officinarum and E. arundinaceus allows the identification of numerous Erianthus-specific RFLP bands in the hybrids. Genomic DNA in situ hybridisation allows for the differentiation of the chromosomes contributed by S. officinarum and E. arundinaceus in chromosome preparations of the hybrids. In situ hybridisation with the 18s-5.8s-25s rDNA probe highlights the basic chromosome numbers in the two parental species. The potential of these techniques to monitor the Erianthus genome during the introgression process is discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Sorghum ; RFLP map ; Comparative mapping ; Sugarcane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A sorghum composite linkage map was constructed with two recombinant inbred line populations using heterologous probes already mapped on maize and sugarcane. This map includes 199 loci revealed by 188 probes and distributed on 13 linkage groups. A comparison based on 84 common probes was performed between the sorghum composite map and a map of a sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivar being developed and presently comprising 10 tentative linkage groups. A straight synteny was observed for 2 pairs of linkage groups; in two cases, 1 sorghum linkage group corresponded to 2 or 3 sugarcane linkage groups, respectively; in two cases 1 sugarcane link- age group corresponded to 2 separate sorghum linkage groups; for 2 sorghum linkage groups, no complete correspondance was found in the sugarcane genome. In most cases loci appeared to be colinear between homoeologous chromosomal segments in sorghum and sugarcane. These results are discussed in relation to published data on sorghum genomic maps, with specific reference to the genetic organization of sugarcane cultivars, and they, illustrate how investigations on relatively simple diploid genomes as sorghum will facilitate the mapping of related polyploid species such as sugarcane.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Alu-like sequences ; Repeated DNA ; Species-specific sequences ; Saccharum complex ; Surgarcane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Alu sequences constitute the most abundant family of short interspersed nuclear elements, SINEs, in the primate genome. The Alu-PCR method, which consists of amplification between Alu sequences, is usually applied in human genetics to provide polymorphic markers. Here we report the presence of Alu-like sequences in sugarcane and related species by applying the Alu-PCR-like method. Amplifications using a PCR primer defined in conserved regions of Alu human sequences lead to specific complex multiband profiles in all the Saccharum and related genera clones surveyed. The isolation and characterisation of the amplified genus-specific inter-Alu-like fragments allowed us to isolate repeated sequences that are specific for different genera of the Saccharum complex: MsCIR2 from Miscanthus, EaCIR6 and EaCIR7 from Erianthus, and SrCIR2 from Saccharum. Two PCR diagnostic tests were developed from the inter-Alu-like sequences MsCIR2 and EaCIR6, and proved efficient in identifying intergeneric hybrids Saccharum×Miscanthus or Saccharum×Erianthus, respectively. The present study illustrates how the Alu-PCR-like method could help investigating the origin of amphiploid species and monitoring introgression in plants.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Major gene ; Polyploidy ; Puccinia melanocephala ; Sugarcane ; RFLP ; Rust
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Inheritance of resistance to rust was investigated in the self progeny of the sugarcane cultivar ‘R570’ also used to build a RFLP genetic map. Resistance was evaluated through both field and controlled greenhouse trials. A clear-cut 3 (resistant) : 1 (susceptible) segregation indicative of a probable dominant resistant gene was observed. This is the first documented report of a monogenic inheritance for disease resistance in sugarcane. This gene was found linked at 10 cM with an RFLP marker revealed by probe CDSR29. Other minor factors involved in the resistance were also detected.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Maize ; Sorghum ; Sugarcane ; RFLP ; Synteny
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Comparative mapping within maize, sorghum and sugarcane has previously revealed the existence of syntenic regions between the crops. In the present study, mapping on the sorghum genome of a set of probes previously located on the maize and sugarcane maps allow a detailed analysis of the relationship between maize chromosomes 3 and 8 and sorghum and sugarcane homoeologous regions. Of 49 loci revealed by 46 (4 sugarcane and 42 maize) polymorphic probes in sorghum, 42 were linked and were assigned to linkage groups G (28), E (10) and I (4). On the basis of common probes, a complete co-linearity is observed between sorghum linkage group G and the two sugarcane linkage groups II and III. The comparison between the consensus sorghum/sugarcane map (G/II/III) and the maps of maize chromosomes 3 and 8 reveals a series of linkage blocks within which gene orders are conserved. These blocks are interspersed with non-homoeologous regions corresponding to the central part of the two maize chromosomes and have been reshuffled, resulting in several inversions in maize compared to sorghum and sugarcane. The results emphasize the fact that duplication will considerably complicate precise comparative mapping at the whole genome scale between maize and other Poaceae.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Major gene ; Polyploidy ; Puccinia melanocephala ; Sugarcane ; RFLP ; Rust
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Inheritance of resistance to rust was investigated in the self progeny of the sugarcane cultivar ‘R570’ also used to build a RFLP genetic map. Resistance was evaluated through both field and controlled greenhouse trials. A clear-cut 3 (resistant) ∶ 1 (susceptible) segregation indicative of a probable dominant resistant gene was observed. This is the first documented report of a monogenic inheritance for disease resistance in sugarcane. This gene was found linked at 10 cM with an RFLP marker revealed by probe CDSR29. Other minor factors involved in the resistance were also detected.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Coffea ; Interspecific hybrids ; Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) ; Flow cytometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  F1 hybrids were obtained between two coffee species with the same chromosome number (2n=22) but with different nuclear DNA contents [C. pseudozanguebariae (PSE) 2C=1.13 pg and C. liberica var ‘dewevrei’ (DEW) 2C=1.42 pg]. G2 hybrids were obtained by open-pollination of the F1 hybrids. Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) and flow cytometry were used on six F1 hybrids and seven G2 hybrids to determine their parental chromosomic contribution and their nuclear DNA content (qDNA), respectively. GISH efficiently identified chromosomes from both species. F1 hybrids had a qDNA intermediate between that of the parental species and contained the expected 11 chromosomes from each species. There was a linear relationship between the number of PSE chromosomes and the nuclear DNA content, which indicates that flow cytometry can be used to give a rough estimate of the parental chromosomic contribution in G2 hybrids.
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