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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-06-04
    Description: DNA damage activates a signalling network that blocks cell-cycle progression, recruits DNA repair factors and/or triggers senescence or programmed cell death. Alterations in chromatin structure are implicated in the initiation and propagation of the DNA damage response. Here we further investigate the role of chromatin structure in the DNA damage response by monitoring ionizing-radiation-induced signalling and response events with a high-content multiplex RNA-mediated interference screen of chromatin-modifying and -interacting genes. We discover that an isoform of Brd4, a bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family member, functions as an endogenous inhibitor of DNA damage response signalling by recruiting the condensin II chromatin remodelling complex to acetylated histones through bromodomain interactions. Loss of this isoform results in relaxed chromatin structure, rapid cell-cycle checkpoint recovery and enhanced survival after irradiation, whereas functional gain of this isoform compacted chromatin, attenuated DNA damage response signalling and enhanced radiation-induced lethality. These data implicate Brd4, previously known for its role in transcriptional control, as an insulator of chromatin that can modulate the signalling response to DNA damage.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683358/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683358/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Floyd, Scott R -- Pacold, Michael E -- Huang, Qiuying -- Clarke, Scott M -- Lam, Fred C -- Cannell, Ian G -- Bryson, Bryan D -- Rameseder, Jonathan -- Lee, Michael J -- Blake, Emily J -- Fydrych, Anna -- Ho, Richard -- Greenberger, Benjamin A -- Chen, Grace C -- Maffa, Amanda -- Del Rosario, Amanda M -- Root, David E -- Carpenter, Anne E -- Hahn, William C -- Sabatini, David M -- Chen, Clark C -- White, Forest M -- Bradner, James E -- Yaffe, Michael B -- 1-U54-CA112967-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ES-002109/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 ES002109/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P30-CA14051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01-ES15339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R21 CA109661/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21 NS063917/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R21-NS063917/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U54 CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jun 13;498(7453):246-50. doi: 10.1038/nature12147. Epub 2013 Jun 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23728299" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism ; Cell Cycle Checkpoints/radiation effects ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Survival/radiation effects ; Chromatin/chemistry/*metabolism/radiation effects ; *Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/radiation effects ; *DNA Damage ; DNA Repair/radiation effects ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/chemistry/metabolism ; Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/radiation effects ; Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor B/metabolism ; Protein Isoforms/metabolism ; Radiation, Ionizing ; *Signal Transduction/radiation effects ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-02-09
    Description: Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2, the genes coding for isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2, are common in several human cancers, including leukemias, and result in overproduction of the (R)-enantiomer of 2-hydroxyglutarate [(R)-2HG]. Elucidation of the role of IDH mutations and (R)-2HG in leukemogenesis has been hampered by a lack of appropriate cell-based models. Here, we show that a canonical IDH1 mutant, IDH1 R132H, promotes cytokine independence and blocks differentiation in hematopoietic cells. These effects can be recapitulated by (R)-2HG, but not (S)-2HG, despite the fact that (S)-2HG more potently inhibits enzymes, such as the 5'-methylcytosine hydroxylase TET2, that have previously been linked to the pathogenesis of IDH mutant tumors. We provide evidence that this paradox relates to the ability of (S)-2HG, but not (R)-2HG, to inhibit the EglN prolyl hydroxylases. Additionally, we show that transformation by (R)-2HG is reversible.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836459/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836459/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Losman, Julie-Aurore -- Looper, Ryan E -- Koivunen, Peppi -- Lee, Sungwoo -- Schneider, Rebekka K -- McMahon, Christine -- Cowley, Glenn S -- Root, David E -- Ebert, Benjamin L -- Kaelin, William G Jr -- P30 DK049216/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA068490/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Mar 29;339(6127):1621-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1231677. Epub 2013 Feb 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23393090" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics/*metabolism ; Glutarates/*metabolism ; *Hematopoiesis ; Humans ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase/genetics/*metabolism ; Leukemia/*enzymology/genetics ; Models, Biological ; Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase/*antagonists & inhibitors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-01-31
    Description: Recent clinical trials showed that targeting of inhibitory receptors on T cells induces durable responses in a subset of cancer patients, despite advanced disease. However, the regulatory switches controlling T-cell function in immunosuppressive tumours are not well understood. Here we show that such inhibitory mechanisms can be systematically discovered in the tumour microenvironment. We devised an in vivo pooled short hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen in which shRNAs targeting negative regulators became highly enriched in murine tumours by releasing a block on T-cell proliferation upon tumour antigen recognition. Such shRNAs were identified by deep sequencing of the shRNA cassette from T cells infiltrating tumour or control tissues. One of the target genes was Ppp2r2d, a regulatory subunit of the PP2A phosphatase family. In tumours, Ppp2r2d knockdown inhibited T-cell apoptosis and enhanced T-cell proliferation as well as cytokine production. Key regulators of immune function can therefore be discovered in relevant tissue microenvironments.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4052214/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4052214/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhou, Penghui -- Shaffer, Donald R -- Alvarez Arias, Diana A -- Nakazaki, Yukoh -- Pos, Wouter -- Torres, Alexis J -- Cremasco, Viviana -- Dougan, Stephanie K -- Cowley, Glenn S -- Elpek, Kutlu -- Brogdon, Jennifer -- Lamb, John -- Turley, Shannon J -- Ploegh, Hidde L -- Root, David E -- Love, J Christopher -- Dranoff, Glenn -- Hacohen, Nir -- Cantor, Harvey -- Wucherpfennig, Kai W -- 1R01CA173750/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DP3 DK097681/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI045757/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30-CA14051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA173750/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007386/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI07386/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 6;506(7486):52-7. doi: 10.1038/nature12988. Epub 2014 Jan 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2]. ; 1] Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] [3] Jounce Therapeutics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Whitehead Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Jounce Therapeutics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, San Diego, California 92121, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24476824" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology ; Apoptosis/immunology ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology/immunology/secretion ; Cell Proliferation ; Cytokines/immunology/secretion ; Female ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; *Immunotherapy/methods ; Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/cytology/immunology/metabolism/secretion ; Melanoma, Experimental/immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Protein Phosphatase 2/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Tumor Microenvironment/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-07-16
    Description: Cancer cells adapt their metabolic processes to drive macromolecular biosynthesis for rapid cell growth and proliferation. RNA interference (RNAi)-based loss-of-function screening has proven powerful for the identification of new and interesting cancer targets, and recent studies have used this technology in vivo to identify novel tumour suppressor genes. Here we developed a method for identifying novel cancer targets via negative-selection RNAi screening using a human breast cancer xenograft model at an orthotopic site in the mouse. Using this method, we screened a set of metabolic genes associated with aggressive breast cancer and stemness to identify those required for in vivo tumorigenesis. Among the genes identified, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is in a genomic region of recurrent copy number gain in breast cancer and PHGDH protein levels are elevated in 70% of oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers. PHGDH catalyses the first step in the serine biosynthesis pathway, and breast cancer cells with high PHGDH expression have increased serine synthesis flux. Suppression of PHGDH in cell lines with elevated PHGDH expression, but not in those without, causes a strong decrease in cell proliferation and a reduction in serine synthesis. We find that PHGDH suppression does not affect intracellular serine levels, but causes a drop in the levels of alpha-ketoglutarate, another output of the pathway and a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. In cells with high PHGDH expression, the serine synthesis pathway contributes approximately 50% of the total anaplerotic flux of glutamine into the TCA cycle. These results reveal that certain breast cancers are dependent upon increased serine pathway flux caused by PHGDH overexpression and demonstrate the utility of in vivo negative-selection RNAi screens for finding potential anticancer targets.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3353325/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3353325/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Possemato, Richard -- Marks, Kevin M -- Shaul, Yoav D -- Pacold, Michael E -- Kim, Dohoon -- Birsoy, Kivanc -- Sethumadhavan, Shalini -- Woo, Hin-Koon -- Jang, Hyun G -- Jha, Abhishek K -- Chen, Walter W -- Barrett, Francesca G -- Stransky, Nicolas -- Tsun, Zhi-Yang -- Cowley, Glenn S -- Barretina, Jordi -- Kalaany, Nada Y -- Hsu, Peggy P -- Ottina, Kathleen -- Chan, Albert M -- Yuan, Bingbing -- Garraway, Levi A -- Root, David E -- Mino-Kenudson, Mari -- Brachtel, Elena F -- Driggers, Edward M -- Sabatini, David M -- CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866-06A1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866-07/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105-02/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105-05/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 18;476(7360):346-50. doi: 10.1038/nature10350.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21760589" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism ; Breast Neoplasms/enzymology/*genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation ; Citric Acid Cycle/physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; *Genomics ; Glutamic Acid/metabolism ; Humans ; Ketoglutaric Acids/metabolism ; Melanoma/enzymology/genetics ; Mice ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Interference ; Serine/*biosynthesis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-30
    Description: Although thousands of large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified in mammals, few have been functionally characterized, leading to debate about their biological role. To address this, we performed loss-of-function studies on most lincRNAs expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and characterized the effects on gene expression. Here we show that knockdown of lincRNAs has major consequences on gene expression patterns, comparable to knockdown of well-known ES cell regulators. Notably, lincRNAs primarily affect gene expression in trans. Knockdown of dozens of lincRNAs causes either exit from the pluripotent state or upregulation of lineage commitment programs. We integrate lincRNAs into the molecular circuitry of ES cells and show that lincRNA genes are regulated by key transcription factors and that lincRNA transcripts bind to multiple chromatin regulatory proteins to affect shared gene expression programs. Together, the results demonstrate that lincRNAs have key roles in the circuitry controlling ES cell state.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3175327/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3175327/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Guttman, Mitchell -- Donaghey, Julie -- Carey, Bryce W -- Garber, Manuel -- Grenier, Jennifer K -- Munson, Glen -- Young, Geneva -- Lucas, Anne Bergstrom -- Ach, Robert -- Bruhn, Laurakay -- Yang, Xiaoping -- Amit, Ido -- Meissner, Alexander -- Regev, Aviv -- Rinn, John L -- Root, David E -- Lander, Eric S -- U54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067-09/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 28;477(7364):295-300. doi: 10.1038/nature10398.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. mguttman@mit.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21874018" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation/*genetics ; Cell Lineage/genetics ; Chromatin/genetics/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Mice ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Protein Binding ; RNA, Untranslated/*genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-12-18
    Description: The simplicity of programming the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated nuclease Cas9 to modify specific genomic loci suggests a new way to interrogate gene function on a genome-wide scale. We show that lentiviral delivery of a genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 knockout (GeCKO) library targeting 18,080 genes with 64,751 unique guide sequences enables both negative and positive selection screening in human cells. First, we used the GeCKO library to identify genes essential for cell viability in cancer and pluripotent stem cells. Next, in a melanoma model, we screened for genes whose loss is involved in resistance to vemurafenib, a therapeutic RAF inhibitor. Our highest-ranking candidates include previously validated genes NF1 and MED12, as well as novel hits NF2, CUL3, TADA2B, and TADA1. We observe a high level of consistency between independent guide RNAs targeting the same gene and a high rate of hit confirmation, demonstrating the promise of genome-scale screening with Cas9.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4089965/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4089965/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shalem, Ophir -- Sanjana, Neville E -- Hartenian, Ella -- Shi, Xi -- Scott, David A -- Mikkelsen, Tarjei S -- Heckl, Dirk -- Ebert, Benjamin L -- Root, David E -- Doench, John G -- Zhang, Feng -- 1DP1-MH100706/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/ -- 1R01-DK097768/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DP1 MH100706/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK097768/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 3;343(6166):84-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1247005. Epub 2013 Dec 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336571" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics ; Caspase 9/*genetics ; Cell Survival/*genetics ; *Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats ; Cullin Proteins/genetics ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/*genetics ; Gene Knockout Techniques ; Gene Library ; Genes, Neurofibromatosis 1 ; Genes, Neurofibromatosis 2 ; Genetic Loci ; Genetic Testing/*methods ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Indoles/therapeutic use ; Lentivirus ; Mediator Complex/genetics ; Melanoma/drug therapy/*genetics ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/*metabolism ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use ; Selection, Genetic ; Sulfonamides/therapeutic use ; Transcription Factors/genetics ; raf Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-11-05
    Description: Malignant melanomas harbouring point mutations (Val600Glu) in the serine/threonine-protein kinase BRAF (BRAF(V600E)) depend on RAF-MEK-ERK signalling for tumour cell growth. RAF and MEK inhibitors show remarkable clinical efficacy in BRAF(V600E) melanoma; however, resistance to these agents remains a formidable challenge. Global characterization of resistance mechanisms may inform the development of more effective therapeutic combinations. Here we carried out systematic gain-of-function resistance studies by expressing more than 15,500 genes individually in a BRAF(V600E) melanoma cell line treated with RAF, MEK, ERK or combined RAF-MEK inhibitors. These studies revealed a cyclic-AMP-dependent melanocytic signalling network not previously associated with drug resistance, including G-protein-coupled receptors, adenyl cyclase, protein kinase A and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Preliminary analysis of biopsies from BRAF(V600E) melanoma patients revealed that phosphorylated (active) CREB was suppressed by RAF-MEK inhibition but restored in relapsing tumours. Expression of transcription factors activated downstream of MAP kinase and cAMP pathways also conferred resistance, including c-FOS, NR4A1, NR4A2 and MITF. Combined treatment with MAPK-pathway and histone-deacetylase inhibitors suppressed MITF expression and cAMP-mediated resistance. Collectively, these data suggest that oncogenic dysregulation of a melanocyte lineage dependency can cause resistance to RAF-MEK-ERK inhibition, which may be overcome by combining signalling- and chromatin-directed therapeutics.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4098832/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4098832/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Johannessen, Cory M -- Johnson, Laura A -- Piccioni, Federica -- Townes, Aisha -- Frederick, Dennie T -- Donahue, Melanie K -- Narayan, Rajiv -- Flaherty, Keith T -- Wargo, Jennifer A -- Root, David E -- Garraway, Levi A -- DP2 OD002750/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP2OD002750/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA163222/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50CA93683/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R33 CA155554/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG006492/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 CA112962/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG006093/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Dec 5;504(7478):138-42. doi: 10.1038/nature12688. Epub 2013 Nov 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] The Broad Institute of Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3] Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24185007" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents/*pharmacology ; CREB-Binding Protein/metabolism ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Lineage ; Cyclic AMP/metabolism ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Melanocytes/cytology/*drug effects/enzymology ; Melanoma/enzymology/physiopathology ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/*metabolism ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors/*pharmacology ; Signal Transduction ; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-05-09
    Description: Efforts to identify host determinants for malaria have been hindered by the absence of a nucleus in erythrocytes, which precludes genetic manipulation in the cell in which the parasite replicates. We used cultured red blood cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells to carry out a forward genetic screen for Plasmodium falciparum host determinants. We found that CD55 is an essential host factor for P. falciparum invasion. CD55-null erythrocytes were refractory to invasion by all isolates of P. falciparum because parasites failed to attach properly to the erythrocyte surface. Thus, CD55 is an attractive target for the development of malaria therapeutics. Hematopoietic stem cell-based forward genetic screens may be valuable for the identification of additional host determinants of malaria pathogenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4465434/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4465434/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Egan, Elizabeth S -- Jiang, Rays H Y -- Moechtar, Mischka A -- Barteneva, Natasha S -- Weekes, Michael P -- Nobre, Luis V -- Gygi, Steven P -- Paulo, Joao A -- Frantzreb, Charles -- Tani, Yoshihiko -- Takahashi, Junko -- Watanabe, Seishi -- Goldberg, Jonathan -- Paul, Aditya S -- Brugnara, Carlo -- Root, David E -- Wiegand, Roger C -- Doench, John G -- Duraisingh, Manoj T -- 100140/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1K08AI103034-01A1/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- K01 DK098285/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K01DK098285/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K08 AI103034/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- K12-HD000850/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01AI091787/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 May 8;348(6235):711-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa3526.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Department of Global Health and Center for Drug Discovery and Innovation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School and Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. ; Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. ; Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; Japanese Red Cross Kinki Block Blood Center, Osaka, Japan. ; Japanese Red Cross Kyushu Block Blood Center, Fukuoka, Japan. ; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; The Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachussetts Insititute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAA. ; Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. The Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachussetts Insititute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAA. mduraisi@hsph.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25954012" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD44/genetics ; Antigens, CD55/*genetics ; Cell Differentiation/genetics ; Cells, Cultured ; Erythrocytes/cytology/metabolism/*parasitology ; Genetic Testing ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/cytology ; Host-Parasite Interactions/*genetics ; Humans ; Malaria, Falciparum/*genetics/*parasitology ; Plasmodium falciparum/*pathogenicity ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: The discovery of cancer dependencies has the potential to inform therapeutic strategies and to identify putative drug targets. Integrating data from comprehensive genomic profiling of cancer cell lines and from functional characterization of cancer cell dependencies, we discovered that loss of the enzyme methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) confers a selective dependence on protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) and its binding partner WDR77. MTAP is frequently lost due to its proximity to the commonly deleted tumor suppressor gene, CDKN2A. We observed increased intracellular concentrations of methylthioadenosine (MTA, the metabolite cleaved by MTAP) in cells harboring MTAP deletions. Furthermore, MTA specifically inhibited PRMT5 enzymatic activity. Administration of either MTA or a small-molecule PRMT5 inhibitor showed a modest preferential impairment of cell viability for MTAP-null cancer cell lines compared with isogenic MTAP-expressing counterparts. Together, our findings reveal PRMT5 as a potential vulnerability across multiple cancer lineages augmented by a common "passenger" genomic alteration.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kryukov, Gregory V -- Wilson, Frederick H -- Ruth, Jason R -- Paulk, Joshiawa -- Tsherniak, Aviad -- Marlow, Sara E -- Vazquez, Francisca -- Weir, Barbara A -- Fitzgerald, Mark E -- Tanaka, Minoru -- Bielski, Craig M -- Scott, Justin M -- Dennis, Courtney -- Cowley, Glenn S -- Boehm, Jesse S -- Root, David E -- Golub, Todd R -- Clish, Clary B -- Bradner, James E -- Hahn, William C -- Garraway, Levi A -- KL2 TR001100/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA176058/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 CA112962/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1214-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5214. Epub 2016 Feb 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. levi_garraway@dfci.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912360" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line, Tumor ; Deoxyadenosines/metabolism/pharmacology ; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Gene Deletion ; Humans ; Isoquinolines/pharmacology ; Neoplasms/*drug therapy/enzymology ; Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases/antagonists & ; inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism ; Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase/genetics/*metabolism ; Pyrimidines/pharmacology ; Thionucleosides/metabolism/pharmacology ; Transcription Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-09-05
    Description: In a short hairpin RNA screen for genes that affect AKT phosphorylation, we identified the RAB35 small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-a protein previously implicated in endomembrane trafficking-as a regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-OH kinase (PI3K) pathway. Depletion of RAB35 suppresses AKT phosphorylation in response to growth factors, whereas expression of a dominant active GTPase-deficient mutant of RAB35 constitutively activates the PI3K/AKT pathway. RAB35 functions downstream of growth factor receptors and upstream of PDK1 and mTORC2 and copurifies with PI3K in immunoprecipitation assays. Two somatic RAB35 mutations found in human tumors generate alleles that constitutively activate PI3K/AKT signaling, suppress apoptosis, and transform cells in a PI3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, oncogenic RAB35 is sufficient to drive platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha to LAMP2-positive endomembranes in the absence of ligand, suggesting that there may be latent oncogenic potential in dysregulated endomembrane trafficking.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4600465/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4600465/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wheeler, Douglas B -- Zoncu, Roberto -- Root, David E -- Sabatini, David M -- Sawyers, Charles L -- 1DP2CA195761-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- AI47389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA092629/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA155169/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM07739/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA155169/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA193837/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 9;350(6257):211-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa4903. Epub 2015 Sep 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, NY 10065, USA. Weill Cornell/Rockefeller University/Sloan Kettering Tri-Institutional MD-PhD Program, New York, NY 10021, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815, USA. sawyersc@mskcc.org sabatini@wi.mit.edu. ; Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, NY 10065, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815, USA. sawyersc@mskcc.org sabatini@wi.mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26338797" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Gene Deletion ; Humans ; Immunoprecipitation ; Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 2/metabolism ; Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism ; Mutation ; Neoplasms/genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Oncogene Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/genetics ; Protein Transport ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism ; RNA Interference ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics ; Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha/metabolism ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; rab GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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