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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-02-22
    Description: Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant paediatric brain tumour, arises in the cerebellum and disseminates through the cerebrospinal fluid in the leptomeningeal space to coat the brain and spinal cord. Dissemination, a marker of poor prognosis, is found in up to 40% of children at diagnosis and in most children at the time of recurrence. Affected children therefore are treated with radiation to the entire developing brain and spinal cord, followed by high-dose chemotherapy, with the ensuing deleterious effects on the developing nervous system. The mechanisms of dissemination through the cerebrospinal fluid are poorly studied, and medulloblastoma metastases have been assumed to be biologically similar to the primary tumour. Here we show that in both mouse and human medulloblastoma, the metastases from an individual are extremely similar to each other but are divergent from the matched primary tumour. Clonal genetic events in the metastases can be demonstrated in a restricted subclone of the primary tumour, suggesting that only rare cells within the primary tumour have the ability to metastasize. Failure to account for the bicompartmental nature of metastatic medulloblastoma could be a major barrier to the development of effective targeted therapies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3288636/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3288636/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wu, Xiaochong -- Northcott, Paul A -- Dubuc, Adrian -- Dupuy, Adam J -- Shih, David J H -- Witt, Hendrik -- Croul, Sidney -- Bouffet, Eric -- Fults, Daniel W -- Eberhart, Charles G -- Garzia, Livia -- Van Meter, Timothy -- Zagzag, David -- Jabado, Nada -- Schwartzentruber, Jeremy -- Majewski, Jacek -- Scheetz, Todd E -- Pfister, Stefan M -- Korshunov, Andrey -- Li, Xiao-Nan -- Scherer, Stephen W -- Cho, Yoon-Jae -- Akagi, Keiko -- MacDonald, Tobey J -- Koster, Jan -- McCabe, Martin G -- Sarver, Aaron L -- Collins, V Peter -- Weiss, William A -- Largaespada, David A -- Collier, Lara S -- Taylor, Michael D -- K01CA122183/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- NS055089/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA108622/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA113636/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA148699/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA148699-03/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS055089/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01CA148699/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 15;482(7386):529-33. doi: 10.1038/nature10825.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Center, Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22343890" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Clonal Evolution/*genetics ; CpG Islands/genetics ; DNA Methylation ; DNA Transposable Elements/genetics ; Disease Models, Animal ; Genes, p53/genetics ; Germ-Line Mutation/genetics ; Humans ; Li-Fraumeni Syndrome/complications/genetics ; Medulloblastoma/complications/*genetics/*pathology ; Mice ; Mutagenesis, Insertional ; Neoplasm Metastasis/*genetics/*pathology ; Survival Rate
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: Ependymomas are common childhood brain tumours that occur throughout the nervous system, but are most common in the paediatric hindbrain. Current standard therapy comprises surgery and radiation, but not cytotoxic chemotherapy as it does not further increase survival. Whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing of 47 hindbrain ependymomas reveals an extremely low mutation rate, and zero significant recurrent somatic single nucleotide variants. Although devoid of recurrent single nucleotide variants and focal copy number aberrations, poor-prognosis hindbrain ependymomas exhibit a CpG island methylator phenotype. Transcriptional silencing driven by CpG methylation converges exclusively on targets of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 which represses expression of differentiation genes through trimethylation of H3K27. CpG island methylator phenotype-positive hindbrain ependymomas are responsive to clinical drugs that target either DNA or H3K27 methylation both in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that epigenetic modifiers are the first rational therapeutic candidates for this deadly malignancy, which is epigenetically deregulated but genetically bland.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4174313/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4174313/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mack, S C -- Witt, H -- Piro, R M -- Gu, L -- Zuyderduyn, S -- Stutz, A M -- Wang, X -- Gallo, M -- Garzia, L -- Zayne, K -- Zhang, X -- Ramaswamy, V -- Jager, N -- Jones, D T W -- Sill, M -- Pugh, T J -- Ryzhova, M -- Wani, K M -- Shih, D J H -- Head, R -- Remke, M -- Bailey, S D -- Zichner, T -- Faria, C C -- Barszczyk, M -- Stark, S -- Seker-Cin, H -- Hutter, S -- Johann, P -- Bender, S -- Hovestadt, V -- Tzaridis, T -- Dubuc, A M -- Northcott, P A -- Peacock, J -- Bertrand, K C -- Agnihotri, S -- Cavalli, F M G -- Clarke, I -- Nethery-Brokx, K -- Creasy, C L -- Verma, S K -- Koster, J -- Wu, X -- Yao, Y -- Milde, T -- Sin-Chan, P -- Zuccaro, J -- Lau, L -- Pereira, S -- Castelo-Branco, P -- Hirst, M -- Marra, M A -- Roberts, S S -- Fults, D -- Massimi, L -- Cho, Y J -- Van Meter, T -- Grajkowska, W -- Lach, B -- Kulozik, A E -- von Deimling, A -- Witt, O -- Scherer, S W -- Fan, X -- Muraszko, K M -- Kool, M -- Pomeroy, S L -- Gupta, N -- Phillips, J -- Huang, A -- Tabori, U -- Hawkins, C -- Malkin, D -- Kongkham, P N -- Weiss, W A -- Jabado, N -- Rutka, J T -- Bouffet, E -- Korbel, J O -- Lupien, M -- Aldape, K D -- Bader, G D -- Eils, R -- Lichter, P -- Dirks, P B -- Pfister, S M -- Korshunov, A -- Taylor, M D -- P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA097257/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA121941/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA148621/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA163737/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA148699/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA159859/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 27;506(7489):445-50. doi: 10.1038/nature13108. Epub 2014 Feb 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [2] Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada [3] Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada [4]. ; 1] Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany [2] Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [3] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [4]. ; 1] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Division of Molecular Genetics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; Department of Molecular Genetics, Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, The Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 1X8, Canada. ; 1] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Genome Biology, European Molecular Biology, Laboratory Meyerhofstr. 1, Heidelberg 69117, Germany. ; 1] Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [2] Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada. ; Department of Genetics, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA. ; 1] Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany [2] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Division of Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Children's Hospital Boston, MIT, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre-University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [2] Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada. ; Cancer Epigenetics Discovery Performance Unit, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA. ; Department of Oncogenomics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam 1105, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [3] CCU Pediatric Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] Centre for High-Throughput Biology, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V6T 1Z4 British Columbia, Canada [2] Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada. ; 1] Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada [2] Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6H 3N1, Canada. ; Department of Pediatrics and National Capital Consortium, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA. ; Pediatric Neurosurgery, Catholic University Medical School, Gemelli Hospital, Rome 00168, Italy. ; Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Virginia Commonwealth, Richmond, Virginia 23298-0646, USA. ; Department of Pathology, University of Warsaw, Children's Memorial Health Institute University of Warsaw, Warsaw 04-730, Poland. ; Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton General Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. ; 1] Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Department of Neuropathology Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] University of Michigan Cell and Developmental Biology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2200, USA [2] Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-0112, USA. ; Departments of Neurology, Pediatrics, and Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, The Helen Diller Family Cancer Research Building, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; 1] Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [2] Department of Neuro-oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. ; Department of Haematology and Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. ; 1] Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [2] Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada [3] Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Departments of Pediatrics and Human Genetics, McGill University and the McGill University Health Center Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec H3Z 2Z3, Canada. ; Department of Neuro-oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. ; Genome Biology, European Molecular Biology, Laboratory Meyerhofstr. 1, Heidelberg 69117, Germany. ; 1] Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre-University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [2] Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [3] Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. ; 1] Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [2] Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada [3] Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada [4] Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; 1] Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany [2] Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [3] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] University of Michigan Cell and Developmental Biology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2200, USA [3] CCU Neuropathology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24553142" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics ; CpG Islands/*genetics ; DNA Methylation/drug effects ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; Ependymoma/drug therapy/*genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; Epigenomics ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Gene Silencing/drug effects ; Histones/drug effects/metabolism ; Humans ; Infant ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred NOD ; Mice, SCID ; Mutation/genetics ; Phenotype ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 2/metabolism ; Prognosis ; Rhombencephalon/pathology ; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-07-22
    Description: Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour currently treated with a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, posing a considerable burden of toxicity to the developing child. Genomics has illuminated the extensive intertumoral heterogeneity of medulloblastoma, identifying four distinct molecular subgroups. Group 3 and group 4 subgroup medulloblastomas account for most paediatric cases; yet, oncogenic drivers for these subtypes remain largely unidentified. Here we describe a series of prevalent, highly disparate genomic structural variants, restricted to groups 3 and 4, resulting in specific and mutually exclusive activation of the growth factor independent 1 family proto-oncogenes, GFI1 and GFI1B. Somatic structural variants juxtapose GFI1 or GFI1B coding sequences proximal to active enhancer elements, including super-enhancers, instigating oncogenic activity. Our results, supported by evidence from mouse models, identify GFI1 and GFI1B as prominent medulloblastoma oncogenes and implicate 'enhancer hijacking' as an efficient mechanism driving oncogene activation in a childhood cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201514/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201514/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Northcott, Paul A -- Lee, Catherine -- Zichner, Thomas -- Stutz, Adrian M -- Erkek, Serap -- Kawauchi, Daisuke -- Shih, David J H -- Hovestadt, Volker -- Zapatka, Marc -- Sturm, Dominik -- Jones, David T W -- Kool, Marcel -- Remke, Marc -- Cavalli, Florence M G -- Zuyderduyn, Scott -- Bader, Gary D -- VandenBerg, Scott -- Esparza, Lourdes Adriana -- Ryzhova, Marina -- Wang, Wei -- Wittmann, Andrea -- Stark, Sebastian -- Sieber, Laura -- Seker-Cin, Huriye -- Linke, Linda -- Kratochwil, Fabian -- Jager, Natalie -- Buchhalter, Ivo -- Imbusch, Charles D -- Zipprich, Gideon -- Raeder, Benjamin -- Schmidt, Sabine -- Diessl, Nicolle -- Wolf, Stephan -- Wiemann, Stefan -- Brors, Benedikt -- Lawerenz, Chris -- Eils, Jurgen -- Warnatz, Hans-Jorg -- Risch, Thomas -- Yaspo, Marie-Laure -- Weber, Ursula D -- Bartholomae, Cynthia C -- von Kalle, Christof -- Turanyi, Eszter -- Hauser, Peter -- Sanden, Emma -- Darabi, Anna -- Siesjo, Peter -- Sterba, Jaroslav -- Zitterbart, Karel -- Sumerauer, David -- van Sluis, Peter -- Versteeg, Rogier -- Volckmann, Richard -- Koster, Jan -- Schuhmann, Martin U -- Ebinger, Martin -- Grimes, H Leighton -- Robinson, Giles W -- Gajjar, Amar -- Mynarek, Martin -- von Hoff, Katja -- Rutkowski, Stefan -- Pietsch, Torsten -- Scheurlen, Wolfram -- Felsberg, Jorg -- Reifenberger, Guido -- Kulozik, Andreas E -- von Deimling, Andreas -- Witt, Olaf -- Eils, Roland -- Gilbertson, Richard J -- Korshunov, Andrey -- Taylor, Michael D -- Lichter, Peter -- Korbel, Jan O -- Wechsler-Reya, Robert J -- Pfister, Stefan M -- 5P30CA030199/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA096832/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA030199/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P41GM103504/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA159859/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 24;511(7510):428-34. doi: 10.1038/nature13379. Epub 2014 Jun 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2]. ; 1] Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0685, USA [2] Tumor Initiation and Maintenance Program, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [3]. ; 1] European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Genome Biology Unit, Meyerhofstrasse 1, Heidelberg 69117, Germany [2]. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Genome Biology Unit, Meyerhofstrasse 1, Heidelberg 69117, Germany. ; 1] Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Genome Biology Unit, Meyerhofstrasse 1, Heidelberg 69117, Germany. ; Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. ; Division of Molecular Genetics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; The Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, 160 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. ; Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Tumor Initiation and Maintenance Program, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Neuropathology, NN Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute, 4th Tverskaya-Yamskaya 16, Moscow 125047, Russia. ; Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; Data Management Facility, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; Genomics and Proteomics Core Facility, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; Department of Vertebrate Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Ihnestrasse 63-73, Berlin 14195, Germany. ; Division of Translational Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Im Neuenheimer Feld 460, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] Division of Translational Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Im Neuenheimer Feld 460, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Heidelberg Center for Personalised Oncology (DKFZ-HIPO), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1st Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University SE, II.sz. Gyermekklinika, Budapest 1094, Hungary. ; 2nd Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University, SE, II.sz. Gyermekklinika, Budapest 1094, Hungary. ; 1] Glioma Immunotherapy Group, Division of Neurosurgery, Lund University, Paradisgatan 2, Lund 221 00, Sweden [2] Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Paradisgatan 2, Lund 221 00, Sweden. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Masaryk University and University Hospital, Brno, Cernopolni 9 Brno 613 00, Czech Republic. ; Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital Motol, V Uvalu 84, Prague 150 06, Czech Republic. ; Department of Oncogenomics, AMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam 1105, AZ Netherlands. ; Department of Neurosurgery, Tubingen University Hospital, Hoppe-Seyler Strasse 3, Tubingen 72076, Germany. ; Division of Immunobiology, Program in Cancer Pathology of the Divisions of Experimental Hematology and Pathology, Program in Hematologic Malignancies of the Cancer and Blood Disease Insitute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 452229, USA. ; 1] Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] Department of Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, Hamburg 20246, Germany. ; Department of Neuropathology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, Bonn 53105, Germany. ; Cnopf'sche Kinderklinik, Nurnberg Children's Hospital, St-Johannis-Muhlgasse 19, Nurnberg 90419, Germany. ; Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine-University Dusseldorf, Moorenstrasse 5, Dusseldorf 40225, Germany. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology & Immunology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; Department of Neuropathology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 220, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Heidelberg Center for Personalised Oncology (DKFZ-HIPO), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada [2] Division of Neurosurgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. ; 1] Division of Molecular Genetics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Heidelberg Center for Personalised Oncology (DKFZ-HIPO), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Genome Biology Unit, Meyerhofstrasse 1, Heidelberg 69117, Germany [2] EMBL, European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Saffron Walden CB10 1SD, UK. ; 1] Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology & Immunology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25043047" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Child ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*genetics/metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Genomic Structural Variation/*genetics ; Humans ; Medulloblastoma/classification/*genetics/pathology ; Mice ; Oncogenes/*genetics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*genetics/metabolism ; Repressor Proteins/*genetics/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/*genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-07-27
    Description: Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant paediatric brain tumour, is currently treated with nonspecific cytotoxic therapies including surgery, whole-brain radiation, and aggressive chemotherapy. As medulloblastoma exhibits marked intertumoural heterogeneity, with at least four distinct molecular variants, previous attempts to identify targets for therapy have been underpowered because of small samples sizes. Here we report somatic copy number aberrations (SCNAs) in 1,087 unique medulloblastomas. SCNAs are common in medulloblastoma, and are predominantly subgroup-enriched. The most common region of focal copy number gain is a tandem duplication of SNCAIP, a gene associated with Parkinson's disease, which is exquisitely restricted to Group 4alpha. Recurrent translocations of PVT1, including PVT1-MYC and PVT1-NDRG1, that arise through chromothripsis are restricted to Group 3. Numerous targetable SCNAs, including recurrent events targeting TGF-beta signalling in Group 3, and NF-kappaB signalling in Group 4, suggest future avenues for rational, targeted therapy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683624/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683624/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Northcott, Paul A -- Shih, David J H -- Peacock, John -- Garzia, Livia -- Morrissy, A Sorana -- Zichner, Thomas -- Stutz, Adrian M -- Korshunov, Andrey -- Reimand, Juri -- Schumacher, Steven E -- Beroukhim, Rameen -- Ellison, David W -- Marshall, Christian R -- Lionel, Anath C -- Mack, Stephen -- Dubuc, Adrian -- Yao, Yuan -- Ramaswamy, Vijay -- Luu, Betty -- Rolider, Adi -- Cavalli, Florence M G -- Wang, Xin -- Remke, Marc -- Wu, Xiaochong -- Chiu, Readman Y B -- Chu, Andy -- Chuah, Eric -- Corbett, Richard D -- Hoad, Gemma R -- Jackman, Shaun D -- Li, Yisu -- Lo, Allan -- Mungall, Karen L -- Nip, Ka Ming -- Qian, Jenny Q -- Raymond, Anthony G J -- Thiessen, Nina T -- Varhol, Richard J -- Birol, Inanc -- Moore, Richard A -- Mungall, Andrew J -- Holt, Robert -- Kawauchi, Daisuke -- Roussel, Martine F -- Kool, Marcel -- Jones, David T W -- Witt, Hendrick -- Fernandez-L, Africa -- Kenney, Anna M -- Wechsler-Reya, Robert J -- Dirks, Peter -- Aviv, Tzvi -- Grajkowska, Wieslawa A -- Perek-Polnik, Marta -- Haberler, Christine C -- Delattre, Olivier -- Reynaud, Stephanie S -- Doz, Francois F -- Pernet-Fattet, Sarah S -- Cho, Byung-Kyu -- Kim, Seung-Ki -- Wang, Kyu-Chang -- Scheurlen, Wolfram -- Eberhart, Charles G -- Fevre-Montange, Michelle -- Jouvet, Anne -- Pollack, Ian F -- Fan, Xing -- Muraszko, Karin M -- Gillespie, G Yancey -- Di Rocco, Concezio -- Massimi, Luca -- Michiels, Erna M C -- Kloosterhof, Nanne K -- French, Pim J -- Kros, Johan M -- Olson, James M -- Ellenbogen, Richard G -- Zitterbart, Karel -- Kren, Leos -- Thompson, Reid C -- Cooper, Michael K -- Lach, Boleslaw -- McLendon, Roger E -- Bigner, Darell D -- Fontebasso, Adam -- Albrecht, Steffen -- Jabado, Nada -- Lindsey, Janet C -- Bailey, Simon -- Gupta, Nalin -- Weiss, William A -- Bognar, Laszlo -- Klekner, Almos -- Van Meter, Timothy E -- Kumabe, Toshihiro -- Tominaga, Teiji -- Elbabaa, Samer K -- Leonard, Jeffrey R -- Rubin, Joshua B -- Liau, Linda M -- Van Meir, Erwin G -- Fouladi, Maryam -- Nakamura, Hideo -- Cinalli, Giuseppe -- Garami, Miklos -- Hauser, Peter -- Saad, Ali G -- Iolascon, Achille -- Jung, Shin -- Carlotti, Carlos G -- Vibhakar, Rajeev -- Ra, Young Shin -- Robinson, Shenandoah -- Zollo, Massimo -- Faria, Claudia C -- Chan, Jennifer A -- Levy, Michael L -- Sorensen, Poul H B -- Meyerson, Matthew -- Pomeroy, Scott L -- Cho, Yoon-Jae -- Bader, Gary D -- Tabori, Uri -- Hawkins, Cynthia E -- Bouffet, Eric -- Scherer, Stephen W -- Rutka, James T -- Malkin, David -- Clifford, Steven C -- Jones, Steven J M -- Korbel, Jan O -- Pfister, Stefan M -- Marra, Marco A -- Taylor, Michael D -- AT1-112286/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- CA116804/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA138292/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA159859/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA86335/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K08 NS059790/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P20 CA151129/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA138292/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 HD018655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103504/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA086335/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA109467/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA114567/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA116804/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA148621/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA155360/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA159859/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA163737/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS061070/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 2;488(7409):49-56. doi: 10.1038/nature11327.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22832581" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Carrier Proteins/genetics ; Cerebellar Neoplasms/*classification/*genetics/metabolism ; Child ; DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics ; Gene Duplication/genetics ; Genes, myc/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomic Structural Variation/*genetics ; Genomics ; Hedgehog Proteins/metabolism ; Humans ; Medulloblastoma/*classification/*genetics/metabolism ; NF-kappa B/metabolism ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics ; Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics ; Proteins/genetics ; RNA, Long Noncoding ; Signal Transduction ; Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism ; Translocation, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-01-14
    Description: The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon-driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with 'humanized' in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy). Genetic events in recurrent murine medulloblastoma exhibit a very poor overlap with those in matched murine diagnostic samples (〈5%). Whole-genome sequencing of 33 pairs of human diagnostic and post-therapy medulloblastomas demonstrated substantial genetic divergence of the dominant clone after therapy (〈12% diagnostic events were retained at recurrence). In both mice and humans, the dominant clone at recurrence arose through clonal selection of a pre-existing minor clone present at diagnosis. Targeted therapy is unlikely to be effective in the absence of the target, therefore our results offer a simple, proximal, and remediable explanation for the failure of prior clinical trials of targeted therapy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Morrissy, A Sorana -- Garzia, Livia -- Shih, David J H -- Zuyderduyn, Scott -- Huang, Xi -- Skowron, Patryk -- Remke, Marc -- Cavalli, Florence M G -- Ramaswamy, Vijay -- Lindsay, Patricia E -- Jelveh, Salomeh -- Donovan, Laura K -- Wang, Xin -- Luu, Betty -- Zayne, Kory -- Li, Yisu -- Mayoh, Chelsea -- Thiessen, Nina -- Mercier, Eloi -- Mungall, Karen L -- Ma, Yusanne -- Tse, Kane -- Zeng, Thomas -- Shumansky, Karey -- Roth, Andrew J L -- Shah, Sohrab -- Farooq, Hamza -- Kijima, Noriyuki -- Holgado, Borja L -- Lee, John J Y -- Matan-Lithwick, Stuart -- Liu, Jessica -- Mack, Stephen C -- Manno, Alex -- Michealraj, K A -- Nor, Carolina -- Peacock, John -- Qin, Lei -- Reimand, Juri -- Rolider, Adi -- Thompson, Yuan Y -- Wu, Xiaochong -- Pugh, Trevor -- Ally, Adrian -- Bilenky, Mikhail -- Butterfield, Yaron S N -- Carlsen, Rebecca -- Cheng, Young -- Chuah, Eric -- Corbett, Richard D -- Dhalla, Noreen -- He, An -- Lee, Darlene -- Li, Haiyan I -- Long, William -- Mayo, Michael -- Plettner, Patrick -- Qian, Jenny Q -- Schein, Jacqueline E -- Tam, Angela -- Wong, Tina -- Birol, Inanc -- Zhao, Yongjun -- Faria, Claudia C -- Pimentel, Jose -- Nunes, Sofia -- Shalaby, Tarek -- Grotzer, Michael -- Pollack, Ian F -- Hamilton, Ronald L -- Li, Xiao-Nan -- Bendel, Anne E -- Fults, Daniel W -- Walter, Andrew W -- Kumabe, Toshihiro -- Tominaga, Teiji -- Collins, V Peter -- Cho, Yoon-Jae -- Hoffman, Caitlin -- Lyden, David -- Wisoff, Jeffrey H -- Garvin, James H Jr -- Stearns, Duncan S -- Massimi, Luca -- Schuller, Ulrich -- Sterba, Jaroslav -- Zitterbart, Karel -- Puget, Stephanie -- Ayrault, Olivier -- Dunn, Sandra E -- Tirapelli, Daniela P C -- Carlotti, Carlos G -- Wheeler, Helen -- Hallahan, Andrew R -- Ingram, Wendy -- MacDonald, Tobey J -- Olson, Jeffrey J -- Van Meir, Erwin G -- Lee, Ji-Yeoun -- Wang, Kyu-Chang -- Kim, Seung-Ki -- Cho, Byung-Kyu -- Pietsch, Torsten -- Fleischhack, Gudrun -- Tippelt, Stephan -- Ra, Young Shin -- Bailey, Simon -- Lindsey, Janet C -- Clifford, Steven C -- Eberhart, Charles G -- Cooper, Michael K -- Packer, Roger J -- Massimino, Maura -- Garre, Maria Luisa -- Bartels, Ute -- Tabori, Uri -- Hawkins, Cynthia E -- Dirks, Peter -- Bouffet, Eric -- Rutka, James T -- Wechsler-Reya, Robert J -- Weiss, William A -- Collier, Lara S -- Dupuy, Adam J -- Korshunov, Andrey -- Jones, David T W -- Kool, Marcel -- Northcott, Paul A -- Pfister, Stefan M -- Largaespada, David A -- Mungall, Andrew J -- Moore, Richard A -- Jabado, Nada -- Bader, Gary D -- Jones, Steven J M -- Malkin, David -- Marra, Marco A -- Taylor, Michael D -- R01 CA163722/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS096236/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01CA148699/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA159859/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 21;529(7586):351-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16478. Epub 2016 Jan 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Developmental &Stem Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. ; The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. ; The Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology, and Clinical Immunology, University Hospital Dusseldorf, M5S 3E1, Germany. ; Division of Neurosurgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. ; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada. ; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada. ; Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4S6, Canada. ; Department of Molecular Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada. ; Center for Stem Cell &Regenerative Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA. ; Clinical Genomics Research Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario 44195, Canada. ; Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada. ; School of Computing Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. ; Division of Neurosurgery, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon 1649-035, Portugal. ; Divison of Pathology, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon 1649-035, Portugal. ; Unidade de Neuro-Oncologia Pediatrica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisbon 1099-023, Portugal. ; Departments of Oncology and Neuro-Oncology, University Children's Hospital of Zurich, Zurich 8032, Switzerland. ; Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15224, USA. ; Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA. ; Brain Tumor Program, Children's Cancer Center and Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55404, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neurosciences Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA. ; A I duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware 19803, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0374, Japan. ; Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8574, Japan. ; Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK. ; Departments of Neurosurgery, Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Departments of Pediatrics, Cell &Developmental Biology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Stem Cell Transplantation, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics-Hematology and Oncology, Rainbow Babies &Children's Hospital and Department of Pediatrics-Hematology and Oncology, Case Western Reserve, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA. ; Pediatric Neurosurgery, Catholic University Medical School, Rome 00198, Italy. ; Center for Neuropathology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, Munich 81377, Germany. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, School of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno 625 00, Czech Republic. ; AP-HP, Department of Neurosurgery, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Universite Rene Descartes, Paris 75743, France. ; Signaling in Development and Brain Tumors, CNRS UMR 3347 / INSERM U1021, Institut Curie, Paris Cedex 5 91405, France. ; Division of Hematology/Oncology, British Columbia Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia V6H 3V4, Canada. ; Department of Surgery and Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil, Rebeirao Preto, Sao Paulo 14049-900, Brazil. ; Kolling Institute of Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2065, Australia. ; Queensland Children's Medical Research Institute, Children's Health Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia. ; Division of Oncology, Children's Health Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia. ; UQ Child Health Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4029, Australia. ; Pediatric Neuro-Oncology Program, School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30307, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA. ; Department of Hematology &Medical Oncology, School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul 30322, South Korea. ; Institute for Neuropathology, University of Bonn D-53105, Germany. ; Children's University Hospital of Essen D-45147, Germany. ; Department of Neurosurgery, University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505, South Korea. ; Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP, UK. ; Departments of Pathology, Ophthalmology and Oncology, John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-8550, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Children's National Medical Center, Washington DC 20010-2970, USA. ; Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan 20133, Italy. ; U.O. Neurochirurgia, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova 16147, Italy. ; Department of Haematology &Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. ; Division of Pathology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. ; Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Departments of Pediatrics, Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; School of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53715, USA. ; Molecular &Cellular Biology Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. ; Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuropathology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; Division of Hematology/Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H2W 1S6., Canada. ; McLaughlin Centre and Department of Molecular Genetics, Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada. ; Department of Molecular Biology &Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia M5G 1L7, Canada. ; Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26760213" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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