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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-07-06
    Description: Supermassive black holes in the nuclei of active galaxies expel large amounts of matter through powerful winds of ionized gas. The archetypal active galaxy NGC 5548 has been studied for decades, and high-resolution x-ray and ultraviolet (UV) observations have previously shown a persistent ionized outflow. An observing campaign in 2013 with six space observatories shows the nucleus to be obscured by a long-lasting, clumpy stream of ionized gas not seen before. It blocks 90% of the soft x-ray emission and causes simultaneous deep, broad UV absorption troughs. The outflow velocities of this gas are up to five times faster than those in the persistent outflow, and, at a distance of only a few light days from the nucleus, it may likely originate from the accretion disk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kaastra, J S -- Kriss, G A -- Cappi, M -- Mehdipour, M -- Petrucci, P-O -- Steenbrugge, K C -- Arav, N -- Behar, E -- Bianchi, S -- Boissay, R -- Branduardi-Raymont, G -- Chamberlain, C -- Costantini, E -- Ely, J C -- Ebrero, J -- Di Gesu, L -- Harrison, F A -- Kaspi, S -- Malzac, J -- De Marco, B -- Matt, G -- Nandra, K -- Paltani, S -- Person, R -- Peterson, B M -- Pinto, C -- Ponti, G -- Pozo Nunez, F -- De Rosa, A -- Seta, H -- Ursini, F -- de Vries, C P -- Walton, D J -- Whewell, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jul 4;345(6192):64-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1253787. Epub 2014 Jun 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Universiteit Utrecht, Post Office Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht, Netherlands. Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Post Office Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands. j.kaastra@sron.nl. ; Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. ; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica (IASF) Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy. ; SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands. Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK. ; Universite Grenoble Alpes, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), F-38000 Grenoble, France. CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France. ; Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Avenida Angamos 0610, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta, Chile. Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UK. ; Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. ; Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa, Israel. ; Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma, Italy. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, 16 Chemin d'Ecogia, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland. ; Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK. ; SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands. ; Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. ; SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands. European Space Astronomy Centre, Post Office Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid, Spain. ; Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Universite de Toulouse, Universite Paul Sabatier (UPS)-Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees (OMP), Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planelogie (IRAP), Toulouse, France. CNRS, IRAP, 9 Avenue colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France. ; Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching, Germany. ; 22 Impasse du Bois Joli, 74410 St. Jorioz, France. ; Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. ; Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK. ; Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Universitatsstrasse 150, 44801, Bochum, Germany. ; INAF/Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma, Italy. ; Research Center for Measurement in Advanced Science, Faculty of Science, Rikkyo University 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Department of Physics, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24994647" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-03-01
    Description: Broad X-ray emission lines from neutral and partially ionized iron observed in active galaxies have been interpreted as fluorescence produced by the reflection of hard X-rays off the inner edge of an accretion disk. In this model, line broadening and distortion result from rapid rotation and relativistic effects near the black hole, the line shape being sensitive to its spin. Alternative models in which the distortions result from absorption by intervening structures provide an equally good description of the data, and there has been no general agreement on which is correct. Recent claims that the black hole (2 x 10(6) solar masses) at the centre of the galaxy NGC 1365 is rotating at close to its maximum possible speed rest on the assumption of relativistic reflection. Here we report X-ray observations of NGC 1365 that reveal the relativistic disk features through broadened Fe-line emission and an associated Compton scattering excess of 10-30 kiloelectronvolts. Using temporal and spectral analyses, we disentangle continuum changes due to time-variable absorption from reflection, which we find arises from a region within 2.5 gravitational radii of the rapidly spinning black hole. Absorption-dominated models that do not include relativistic disk reflection can be ruled out both statistically and on physical grounds.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Risaliti, G -- Harrison, F A -- Madsen, K K -- Walton, D J -- Boggs, S E -- Christensen, F E -- Craig, W W -- Grefenstette, B W -- Hailey, C J -- Nardini, E -- Stern, Daniel -- Zhang, W W -- England -- Nature. 2013 Feb 28;494(7438):449-51. doi: 10.1038/nature11938.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉INAF-Osservatoria Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy. risaliti@arcetri.astro.it〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23446416" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-03-07
    Description: The co-evolution of a supermassive black hole with its host galaxy through cosmic time is encoded in its spin. At z 〉 2, supermassive black holes are thought to grow mostly by merger-driven accretion leading to high spin. It is not known, however, whether below z approximately 1 these black holes continue to grow by coherent accretion or in a chaotic manner, though clear differences are predicted in their spin evolution. An established method of measuring the spin of black holes is through the study of relativistic reflection features from the inner accretion disk. Owing to their greater distances from Earth, there has hitherto been no significant detection of relativistic reflection features in a moderate-redshift quasar. Here we report an analysis of archival X-ray data together with a deep observation of a gravitationally lensed quasar at z = 0.658. The emission originates within three or fewer gravitational radii from the black hole, implying a spin parameter (a measure of how fast the black hole is rotating) of a = 0.87(+0.08)(-0.15) at the 3sigma confidence level and a 〉 0.66 at the 5sigma level. The high spin found here is indicative of growth by coherent accretion for this black hole, and suggests that black-hole growth at 0.5 〈/= z 〈/= 1 occurs principally by coherent rather than chaotic accretion episodes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reis, R C -- Reynolds, M T -- Miller, J M -- Walton, D J -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 13;507(7491):207-9. doi: 10.1038/nature13031. Epub 2014 Mar 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24598545" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-10-10
    Description: The majority of ultraluminous X-ray sources are point sources that are spatially offset from the nuclei of nearby galaxies and whose X-ray luminosities exceed the theoretical maximum for spherical infall (the Eddington limit) onto stellar-mass black holes. Their X-ray luminosities in the 0.5-10 kiloelectronvolt energy band range from 10(39) to 10(41) ergs per second. Because higher masses imply less extreme ratios of the luminosity to the isotropic Eddington limit, theoretical models have focused on black hole rather than neutron star systems. The most challenging sources to explain are those at the luminous end of the range (more than 10(40) ergs per second), which require black hole masses of 50-100 times the solar value or significant departures from the standard thin disk accretion that powers bright Galactic X-ray binaries, or both. Here we report broadband X-ray observations of the nuclear region of the galaxy M82 that reveal pulsations with an average period of 1.37 seconds and a 2.5-day sinusoidal modulation. The pulsations result from the rotation of a magnetized neutron star, and the modulation arises from its binary orbit. The pulsed flux alone corresponds to an X-ray luminosity in the 3-30 kiloelectronvolt range of 4.9 x 10(39) ergs per second. The pulsating source is spatially coincident with a variable source that can reach an X-ray luminosity in the 0.3-10 kiloelectronvolt range of 1.8 x 10(40) ergs per second. This association implies a luminosity of about 100 times the Eddington limit for a 1.4-solar-mass object, or more than ten times brighter than any known accreting pulsar. This implies that neutron stars may not be rare in the ultraluminous X-ray population, and it challenges physical models for the accretion of matter onto magnetized compact objects.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bachetti, M -- Harrison, F A -- Walton, D J -- Grefenstette, B W -- Chakrabarty, D -- Furst, F -- Barret, D -- Beloborodov, A -- Boggs, S E -- Christensen, F E -- Craig, W W -- Fabian, A C -- Hailey, C J -- Hornschemeier, A -- Kaspi, V -- Kulkarni, S R -- Maccarone, T -- Miller, J M -- Rana, V -- Stern, D -- Tendulkar, S P -- Tomsick, J -- Webb, N A -- Zhang, W W -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 9;514(7521):202-4. doi: 10.1038/nature13791.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 9, Avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France [2] CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 9, Avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France. ; Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 East California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. ; MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Physics Department, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027, USA. ; Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. ; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA. ; Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK. ; Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA. ; Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8, Canada. ; Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1042, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25297433" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-02-24
    Description: The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband x-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic speeds from the inner accretion disk, and its wide aperture suggests an effective coupling with the ambient gas. The outflow's kinetic power larger than 10(46) ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nardini, E -- Reeves, J N -- Gofford, J -- Harrison, F A -- Risaliti, G -- Braito, V -- Costa, M T -- Matzeu, G A -- Walton, D J -- Behar, E -- Boggs, S E -- Christensen, F E -- Craig, W W -- Hailey, C J -- Matt, G -- Miller, J M -- O'Brien, P T -- Stern, D -- Turner, T J -- Ward, M J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 20;347(6224):860-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1259202.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK. e.nardini@keele.ac.uk. ; Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK. Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA. ; Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze, Italy. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (LC), Italy. ; Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK. ; Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. ; Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel. ; Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Danmarks Tekniske Universitet Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark. ; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. ; Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA. ; Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma, Italy. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. ; Physics Department, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA. Eureka Scientific Inc., 2452 Delmer Street Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602, USA. ; Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25700515" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 35 (1979), S. 500-502 
    ISSN: 1600-5740
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1042-7147
    Keywords: Conducting polymer ; Polypyrrole ; Competitive doping ; Anion selectivity ; Perchlorate ; Hexafluorophosphate ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: In the electro-oxidative preparation of polypyrrole films from electrolyte media containing both perchlorate and hexafluorophosphate anions a striking selectivity towards ClO4 was observed, with a three-fold preference for this anion in films from aqueous medium and a greater than ten-fold preference from MeCN. This result is of benefit towards the production of polypyrroles containing complex functionalized dopant anions, since the presence of PF6 to bolster electrolysis parameters will less readily carry over into the final polymer. PF6 is particularly useful for this purpose in MeCN, where ClO4 is inappropriate, being itself too readily incorporated into the polymer from this solvent system.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1057-9257
    Keywords: friction coefficient ; wear coefficient ; tribology ; conducting polymers ; 2,6-naphthalenedisulphonate (2,6-NDS) ; 1,5-naphthalenedisulphonate (1,5-NDS) and 2-naphthalenesulphonate (NS) polypyrroles ; sliding test ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Notes: It is known that, with careful control of conditions, polypyrrole films with counter-ions of toluene sulphonic acid sodium salt and methane phosphonic acid sodium salt can be produced with friction coefficients comparable with or even better than PTFE. Here we now report a systematic study of polypyrrole with various planar anions for tribological bearing applications. Thus naphthalene disulphonate-doped polypyrrole has a kind of laminar structure with very good adhesion to the surface. Polymer films were electrodeposited on glass lenses and tested in a friction apparatus for friction and wear measurements. The film orientation was measured by low-angle X-ray diffraction and the surface structure was evaluated by both AFM and SEM for different film thicknesses. The friction coefficient and wear rate of such bearings were measured under loads up to 5 N and at speeds up to 30 mm s-1 and were found to be 0·06 and 0·04 nm mm-1 respectively. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1057-9257
    Keywords: biosensor ; protein immobilisation ; protein modification ; electrochemistry ; nitrotyrosine ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Notes: Use of electrosynthetic methodology allows the production of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) either mononitrated at tyrosine 23 or bisnitrated at tyrosines 20 and 23, but never nitrated at tyrosine 53. This is a different sequence from that obtained by the chemical nitrating agent tetranitromethane, and when reduced by dithionite, the selectively modified enzyme can be anchored at pH 5 via the unique aromatic amino group to magnetic beads or other suitable matrices. HEWL so immobilised loses less than 10% of cell-wall lytic activity compared with the approximately 50% loss of activity when immobilised by conventional methodology at pH 9 via essentially random reaction at lysine residues and other functionalities which are nucleophilic at this pH. This result offers promise as a general method for selective protein immobilisation in biosensors and similar applications. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1057-9257
    Keywords: optical gas sensing ; polysiloxane ; azobenzene ; NO2 ; molecular modelling ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Notes: Siloxane copolymers having as side-chains azobenzene derivatives bearing different electron-withdrawing and donating substituents were deposited as thin films by dip coating, and their behaviour upon exposure to 100 pm NO2 was studied by UV/visible spectroscopy. Electron-donating substituents at the ortho positions on the aromatic rings in the azo unit have significant influence on the absorbance changes produced by exposure to NO2, and this is explained by modelling, which suggests that interaction between the electrophilic nitrogen atom in NO2 and the electron clouds of the azobenzene skeleton is responsible for the sensing process, rather than the formation of a Wheland intermediate or other product of chemical reaction. Especially effective substituents are methoxy groups in either aromatic ring ortho or the azo linkage, which also produce a significant increase in intensity of the long-wavelength n-π* transition. This moves the optical interrogation signal to a wavelength range of particular benefit for potential applications. Copyright © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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