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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is impaired before the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. We found that exercise provided cognitive benefit to 5 x FAD mice, a mouse model of AD, by inducing AHN and elevating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Neither stimulation of AHN alone, nor exercise, in the absence of increased AHN, ameliorated cognition. We successfully mimicked the beneficial effects of exercise on AD mice by genetically and pharmacologically inducing AHN in combination with elevating BDNF levels. Suppressing AHN later led to worsened cognitive performance and loss of preexisting dentate neurons. Thus, pharmacological mimetics of exercise, enhancing AHN and elevating BDNF levels, may improve cognition in AD. Furthermore, applied at early stages of AD, these mimetics may protect against subsequent neuronal cell death.
    Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Neuroscience, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Tissue engineering holds great promise for the treatment of advanced intervertebral disc degeneration. However, assessment of in vivo integration and mechanical function of tissue-engineered disc replacements over the long term, in large animal models, will be necessary to advance clinical translation. To that end, we developed tissue-engineered, endplate-modified disc-like angle ply structures (eDAPS) sized for the rat caudal and goat cervical spines that recapitulate the hierarchical structure of the native disc. Here, we demonstrate functional maturation and integration of these eDAPS in a rat caudal disc replacement model, with compressive mechanical properties reaching native values after 20 weeks in vivo and evidence of functional integration under physiological loads. To further this therapy toward clinical translation, we implanted eDAPS sized for the human cervical disc space in a goat cervical disc replacement model. Our results demonstrate maintenance of eDAPS composition and structure up to 8 weeks in vivo in the goat cervical disc space and maturation of compressive mechanical properties to match native levels. These results demonstrate the translational feasibility of disc replacement with a tissue-engineered construct for the treatment of advanced disc degeneration.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Keywords: PROTEINS ; VELOCITY ; AGGREGATION ; BIOPHARMACEUTICALS ; FLUORESCENCE-DETECTED SEDIMENTATION ; SIZE-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY ; FIELD-FLOW FRACTIONATION ; SPINCO ULTRACENTRIFUGE ; BEAD MODELS ; HYDRODYNAMICS
    Abstract: Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish the precision and accuracy of basic data dimensions in AUC and validate previously proposed calibration techniques. Three kits of AUC cell assemblies containing radial and temperature calibration tools and a bovine serum albumin (BSA) reference sample were shared among 67 laboratories, generating 129 comprehensive data sets. These allowed for an assessment of many parameters of instrument performance, including accuracy of the reported scan time after the start of centrifugation, the accuracy of the temperature calibration, and the accuracy of the radial magnification. The range of sedimentation coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 +/- 0.188) S (4.4%). After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time, scan velocity, temperature, and radial magnification, the range of s-values was reduced 7-fold with a mean of 4.325 S and a 6-fold reduced standard deviation of +/- 0.030 S (0.7%). In addition, the large data set provided an opportunity to determine the instrument-to-instrument variation of the absolute radial positions reported in the scan files, the precision of photometric or refractometric signal magnitudes, and the precision of the calculated apparent molar mass of BSA monomer and the fraction of BSA dimers. These results highlight the necessity and effectiveness of independent calibration of basic AUC data dimensions for reliable quantitative studies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25997164
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Limitations on male capacity may be important to the evolution of mating strategies and behavior. Sperm counts in successive ejaculates of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) decreased progressively through six ejaculations and remained depressed the following day. Males were as effective in inseminating females in cycling estrus with their second two ejaculates as with their first two and as effective in inseminating postpartum females with their fifth as with their first. In sperm competition situations males competed with rested males as effectively with their fourth, fifth, and sixth ejaculates as with their first. Thus, although sperm counts decrease in successive ejaculates, males suffer no apparent functional deficiency as long as they continue ejaculating. It is not clear whether or not deer mice are “honest salesmen” but they appear to be “honest ejaculators” and usually are “honest intromitters.”
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-6547
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An analysis of national data was completed to assess historical trends in age differences regarding incidents of accidental, homicidal, and suicidal deaths of children and adolescents. Analyses were completed on data for 1979 and 1984 examining gender × age and race × age differences using raw frequencies, ratios of death to size of living cohort, and percentage of a given form of death to all deaths. Historical trends reveal a general decline in incidents of the three leading external causes of death. Males were at greater risk than females in both 1979 and 1984. Age difference comparisons reveal greatest increase in incidence occurs between early and middle adolescence with continuing increases into late adolescence. Implications for prevention and intervention are made. Speculation based on a gender intensification hypothesis is advanced for observed gender differences. Racial differences are discussed from a socio-contextual perspective. Age differences are thought to be bio-socially related, while historical trend differences may be due to cohort size differences, cultural change, or prevention efforts due to changes in age of majority laws (e.g., drinking).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-04-10
    Description: Cancer cells adapt their metabolic processes to support rapid proliferation, but less is known about how cancer cells alter metabolism to promote cell survival in a poorly vascularized tumour microenvironment. Here we identify a key role for serine and glycine metabolism in the survival of brain cancer cells within the ischaemic zones of gliomas. In human glioblastoma multiforme, mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT2) and glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) are highly expressed in the pseudopalisading cells that surround necrotic foci. We find that SHMT2 activity limits that of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) and reduces oxygen consumption, eliciting a metabolic state that confers a profound survival advantage to cells in poorly vascularized tumour regions. GLDC inhibition impairs cells with high SHMT2 levels as the excess glycine not metabolized by GLDC can be converted to the toxic molecules aminoacetone and methylglyoxal. Thus, SHMT2 is required for cancer cells to adapt to the tumour environment, but also renders these cells sensitive to glycine cleavage system inhibition.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4533874/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4533874/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Dohoon -- Fiske, Brian P -- Birsoy, Kivanc -- Freinkman, Elizaveta -- Kami, Kenjiro -- Possemato, Richard L -- Chudnovsky, Yakov -- Pacold, Michael E -- Chen, Walter W -- Cantor, Jason R -- Shelton, Laura M -- Gui, Dan Y -- Kwon, Manjae -- Ramkissoon, Shakti H -- Ligon, Keith L -- Kang, Seong Woo -- Snuderl, Matija -- Vander Heiden, Matthew G -- Sabatini, David M -- 5P30CA14051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- AI07389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K08 NS087118/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- K08-NS087118/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- K99 CA168940/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA168653/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA168653/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007287/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM007287/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 16;520(7547):363-7. doi: 10.1038/nature14363. Epub 2015 Apr 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [3] The David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [4] Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [5] Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Seven Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] The David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [2] Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [3] Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Seven Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Human Metabolome Technologies, Inc., Tsuruoka 997-0052, Japan. ; 1] Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [3] The David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [4] Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [5] Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Seven Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [6] Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Human Metabolome Technologies America, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts 02134, USA. ; 1] Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; 1] Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [2] Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3] Department of Pathology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Pathology, NYU Langone Medical Center and Medical School, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; 1] The David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [2] Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [3] Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Seven Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [4] Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25855294" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetone/analogs & derivatives/metabolism/toxicity ; Animals ; Brain Neoplasms/blood supply/enzymology/*metabolism/*pathology ; Cell Hypoxia ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Survival ; Female ; Glioblastoma/blood supply/enzymology/*metabolism/*pathology ; Glycine/*metabolism ; Glycine Dehydrogenase (Decarboxylating)/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Glycine Hydroxymethyltransferase/*metabolism ; Humans ; Ischemia/enzymology/*metabolism/pathology ; Mice ; Necrosis ; Oxygen Consumption ; Pyruvaldehyde/metabolism/toxicity ; Pyruvate Kinase/metabolism ; Tumor Microenvironment ; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-09-28
    Description: Pharmacogenomic landscape of patient-derived tumor cells informs precision oncology therapy Pharmacogenomic landscape of patient-derived tumor cells informs precision oncology therapy, Published online: 27 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0209-6 Analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data from 462 patient-derived tumor cell (PDC) samples across 14 cancer types, along with pharmacological responses to 60 agents, indicates that PDC-derived drug sensitivities might be predictive of clinical response to targeted therapies.
    Print ISSN: 1061-4036
    Electronic ISSN: 1546-1718
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-02
    Description: Simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation using the maximum-likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) augmented by time-of-flight information is a promising method for PET attenuation correction. However, it still suffers from several problems, including crosstalk artifacts, slow convergence speed, and noisy attenuation maps (μ-maps). In this work, we developed deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to overcome these MLAA limitations, and we verified their feasibility using a clinical brain PET dataset. Methods: We applied the proposed method to one of the most challenging PET cases for simultaneous image reconstruction ( 18 F-fluorinated- N -3-fluoropropyl-2-β-carboxymethoxy-3-β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane [ 18 F-FP-CIT] PET scans with highly specific binding to striatum of the brain). Three different CNN architectures (convolutional autoencoder [CAE], Unet, and Hybrid of CAE) were designed and trained to learn a CT-derived μ-map (μ-CT) from the MLAA-generated activity distribution and μ-map (μ-MLAA). The PET/CT data of 40 patients with suspected Parkinson disease were used for 5-fold cross-validation. For the training of CNNs, 800,000 transverse PET and CT slices augmented from 32 patient datasets were used. The similarity to μ-CT of the CNN-generated μ-maps (μ-CAE, μ-Unet, and μ-Hybrid) and μ-MLAA was compared using Dice similarity coefficients. In addition, we compared the activity concentration of specific (striatum) and nonspecific (cerebellum and occipital cortex) binding regions and the binding ratios in the striatum in the PET activity images reconstructed using those μ-maps. Results: The CNNs generated less noisy and more uniform μ-maps than the original μ-MLAA. Moreover, the air cavities and bones were better resolved in the proposed CNN outputs. In addition, the proposed deep learning approach was useful for mitigating the crosstalk problem in the MLAA reconstruction. The Hybrid network of CAE and Unet yielded the most similar μ-maps to μ-CT (Dice similarity coefficient in the whole head = 0.79 in the bone and 0.72 in air cavities), resulting in only about a 5% error in activity and binding ratio quantification. Conclusion: The proposed deep learning approach is promising for accurate attenuation correction of activity distribution in time-of-flight PET systems.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3123
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Background/Aim: There is no definite consensus regarding management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). This study aimed to compare clinical outcomes according to initial treatment modality for treatment of naïve HCC combined with subsegmental (Vp1)/ segmental (Vp2) PVTT with liver resection (LR) versus trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) followed by radiotherapy (RT). Materials and Methods: From our institutional registry, we enrolled 78 patients diagnosed with HCC combined with Vp1 or Vp2 PVTT and treated with LR or TACE followed by RT (TACE-RT) as a primary treatment. Results: LR was more frequently applied for younger, nodular tumor morphology, or solitary tumor. Overall, LR yielded significantly better progression-free survival (PFS) (p=0.02, 41.9% vs. 15.7% at 2-years), and marginally higher overall survival (OS) (p=0.09, 75.8% vs. 61.5% at 2-years). There was an interaction effect between primary treatment and tumor morphology, and a significantly higher PFS was observed after LR in nodular morphology, in contrast with the lower PFS that was achieved after LR in infiltrative or massive morphology. Conclusion: Although LR yielded higher PFS than TACE-RT in HCC with Vp1 or Vp2 PVTT with similar acute complications, the difference in PFS between the LR and TACE-RT groups was significantly affected by tumor morphology.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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