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  • 1
    Abstract: To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events 〉2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27291797
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  • 2
    Abstract: Current therapies for medulloblastoma, a highly malignant childhood brain tumour, impose debilitating effects on the developing child, and highlight the need for molecularly targeted treatments with reduced toxicity. Previous studies have been unable to identify the full spectrum of driver genes and molecular processes that operate in medulloblastoma subgroups. Here we analyse the somatic landscape across 491 sequenced medulloblastoma samples and the molecular heterogeneity among 1,256 epigenetically analysed cases, and identify subgroup-specific driver alterations that include previously undiscovered actionable targets. Driver mutations were confidently assigned to most patients belonging to Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastoma subgroups, greatly enhancing previous knowledge. New molecular subtypes were differentially enriched for specific driver events, including hotspot in-frame insertions that target KBTBD4 and 'enhancer hijacking' events that activate PRDM6. Thus, the application of integrative genomics to an extensive cohort of clinical samples derived from a single childhood cancer entity revealed a series of cancer genes and biologically relevant subtype diversity that represent attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of patients with medulloblastoma.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28726821
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a crucial regulator of cell-cycle progression, is overexpressed in multiple types of cancers and has been proven to be a potent and promising target for cancer treatment. In case of prostate cancer, we once showed that antineoplastic activity of Plk1 inhibitor is largely due to inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) signaling. However, we also discovered that Plk1 inhibition causes activation of the β-catenin pathway and increased expression of c-MYC, eventually resulting in resistance to Plk1 inhibition. JQ1, a selective small-molecule inhibitor targeting the amino-terminal bromodomains of BRD4, has been shown to dramatically inhibit c-MYC expression and AR signaling, exhibiting antiproliferative effects in a range of cancers. Because c-MYC and AR signaling are essential for prostate cancer initiation and progression, we aim to test whether targeting Plk1 and BRD4 at the same time is an effective approach to treat prostate cancer. Herein, we show that a combination of Plk1 inhibitor GSK461364A and BRD4 inhibitor JQ1 had a strong synergistic effect on castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cell lines, as well as in CRPC xenograft tumors. Mechanistically, the synergistic effect is likely due to two reasons: (i) Plk1 inhibition results in the accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus, thus elevation of c-MYC expression, whereas JQ1 treatment directly suppresses c-MYC transcription; (ii) Plk1 and BRD4 dual inhibition acts synergistically in inhibition of AR signaling. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(7); 1554–65. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1535-7163
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-8514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-08-07
    Description: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease characterized by progressive pulmonary artery (PA) remodeling. T helper 2 cell (Th2) immune response is involved in PA remodeling during PAH progression. Here, we found that CRTH2 (chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cell) expression was up-regulated in circulating CD3 + CD4 + T cells in patients with idiopathic PAH and in rodent PAH models. CRTH2 disruption dramatically ameliorated PA remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in different PAH mouse models. CRTH2 deficiency suppressed Th2 activation, including IL-4 and IL-13 secretion. Both CRTH2 +/+ bone marrow reconstitution and CRTH2 +/+ CD4 + T cell adoptive transfer deteriorated hypoxia + ovalbumin – induced PAH in CRTH2 –/– mice, which was reversed by dual neutralization of IL-4 and IL-13. CRTH2 inhibition alleviated established PAH in mice by repressing Th2 activity. In culture, CRTH2 activation in Th2 cells promoted pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation through activation of STAT6. These results demonstrate the critical role of CRTH2-mediated Th2 response in PAH pathogenesis and highlight the CRTH2 receptor as a potential therapeutic target for PAH.
    Keywords: Cardiovascular Biology
    Print ISSN: 0022-1007
    Electronic ISSN: 1540-9538
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Different from the output–input representation-based identification methods of two-block Hammerstein systems, this paper concerns a separate block-based parameter estimation method for each block of a two-block Hammerstein CARMA system, without combining the parameters of two parts together. The idea is to consider each block as a subsystem and to estimate the parameters of the nonlinear block and the linear block separately (interactively), by using two least-squares algorithms in one recursive step. The internal variable between the two blocks (the output of the nonlinear block, and also the input of the linear block) is replaced by different estimates: when estimating the parameters of the nonlinear part, the internal variable between the two blocks is computed by the linear function; when estimating the parameters of the linear part, the internal variable is computed by the nonlinear function. The proposed parameter estimation method possesses property of the higher computational efficiency compared with the previous over-parametrization method in which many redundant parameters need to be computed. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
    Keywords: mathematical modelling, systems theory, computer modelling and simulation
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-03-29
    Description: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world. However, the complex polyploid nature of its genome makes genetic and functional analyses extremely challenging. The A genome, as a basic genome of bread wheat and other polyploid wheats, for example, T. turgidum (AABB), T. timopheevii (AAGG) and T. zhukovskyi (AAGGA(m)A(m)), is central to wheat evolution, domestication and genetic improvement. The progenitor species of the A genome is the diploid wild einkorn wheat T. urartu, which resembles cultivated wheat more extensively than do Aegilops speltoides (the ancestor of the B genome) and Ae. tauschii (the donor of the D genome), especially in the morphology and development of spike and seed. Here we present the generation, assembly and analysis of a whole-genome shotgun draft sequence of the T. urartu genome. We identified protein-coding gene models, performed genome structure analyses and assessed its utility for analysing agronomically important genes and for developing molecular markers. Our T. urartu genome assembly provides a diploid reference for analysis of polyploid wheat genomes and is a valuable resource for the genetic improvement of wheat.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ling, Hong-Qing -- Zhao, Shancen -- Liu, Dongcheng -- Wang, Junyi -- Sun, Hua -- Zhang, Chi -- Fan, Huajie -- Li, Dong -- Dong, Lingli -- Tao, Yong -- Gao, Chuan -- Wu, Huilan -- Li, Yiwen -- Cui, Yan -- Guo, Xiaosen -- Zheng, Shusong -- Wang, Biao -- Yu, Kang -- Liang, Qinsi -- Yang, Wenlong -- Lou, Xueyuan -- Chen, Jie -- Feng, Mingji -- Jian, Jianbo -- Zhang, Xiaofei -- Luo, Guangbin -- Jiang, Ying -- Liu, Junjie -- Wang, Zhaobao -- Sha, Yuhui -- Zhang, Bairu -- Wu, Huajun -- Tang, Dingzhong -- Shen, Qianhua -- Xue, Pengya -- Zou, Shenhao -- Wang, Xiujie -- Liu, Xin -- Wang, Famin -- Yang, Yanping -- An, Xueli -- Dong, Zhenying -- Zhang, Kunpu -- Zhang, Xiangqi -- Luo, Ming-Cheng -- Dvorak, Jan -- Tong, Yiping -- Wang, Jian -- Yang, Huanming -- Li, Zhensheng -- Wang, Daowen -- Zhang, Aimin -- Wang, Jun -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 4;496(7443):87-90. doi: 10.1038/nature11997. Epub 2013 Mar 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23535596" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Brachypodium/genetics ; Crops, Agricultural/classification/genetics ; Diploidy ; Genetic Markers/genetics ; Genome, Plant/*genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oryza/genetics ; Phylogeny ; Sorghum/genetics ; Synteny/genetics ; Triticum/classification/*genetics ; Zea mays/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2015-09-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Dasheng -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 17;525(7569):321. doi: 10.1038/525321a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Shandong Institute of Environmental Science, Jinan, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26381977" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-05-15
    Description: A novel Ebola virus (EBOV) first identified in March 2014 has infected more than 25,000 people in West Africa, resulting in more than 10,000 deaths. Preliminary analyses of genome sequences of 81 EBOV collected from March to June 2014 from Guinea and Sierra Leone suggest that the 2014 EBOV originated from an independent transmission event from its natural reservoir followed by sustained human-to-human infections. It has been reported that the EBOV genome variation might have an effect on the efficacy of sequence-based virus detection and candidate therapeutics. However, only limited viral information has been available since July 2014, when the outbreak entered a rapid growth phase. Here we describe 175 full-length EBOV genome sequences from five severely stricken districts in Sierra Leone from 28 September to 11 November 2014. We found that the 2014 EBOV has become more phylogenetically and genetically diverse from July to November 2014, characterized by the emergence of multiple novel lineages. The substitution rate for the 2014 EBOV was estimated to be 1.23 x 10(-3) substitutions per site per year (95% highest posterior density interval, 1.04 x 10(-3) to 1.41 x 10(-3) substitutions per site per year), approximating to that observed between previous EBOV outbreaks. The sharp increase in genetic diversity of the 2014 EBOV warrants extensive EBOV surveillance in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia to better understand the viral evolution and transmission dynamics of the ongoing outbreak. These data will facilitate the international efforts to develop vaccines and therapeutics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tong, Yi-Gang -- Shi, Wei-Feng -- Liu, Di -- Qian, Jun -- Liang, Long -- Bo, Xiao-Chen -- Liu, Jun -- Ren, Hong-Guang -- Fan, Hang -- Ni, Ming -- Sun, Yang -- Jin, Yuan -- Teng, Yue -- Li, Zhen -- Kargbo, David -- Dafae, Foday -- Kanu, Alex -- Chen, Cheng-Chao -- Lan, Zhi-Heng -- Jiang, Hui -- Luo, Yang -- Lu, Hui-Jun -- Zhang, Xiao-Guang -- Yang, Fan -- Hu, Yi -- Cao, Yu-Xi -- Deng, Yong-Qiang -- Su, Hao-Xiang -- Sun, Yu -- Liu, Wen-Sen -- Wang, Zhuang -- Wang, Cheng-Yu -- Bu, Zhao-Yang -- Guo, Zhen-Dong -- Zhang, Liu-Bo -- Nie, Wei-Min -- Bai, Chang-Qing -- Sun, Chun-Hua -- An, Xiao-Ping -- Xu, Pei-Song -- Zhang, Xiang-Li-Lan -- Huang, Yong -- Mi, Zhi-Qiang -- Yu, Dong -- Yao, Hong-Wu -- Feng, Yong -- Xia, Zhi-Ping -- Zheng, Xue-Xing -- Yang, Song-Tao -- Lu, Bing -- Jiang, Jia-Fu -- Kargbo, Brima -- He, Fu-Chu -- Gao, George F -- Cao, Wu-Chun -- China Mobile Laboratory Testing Team in Sierra Leone -- England -- Nature. 2015 Aug 6;524(7563):93-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14490. Epub 2015 May 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing 100071, China. ; Institute of Pathogen Biology, Taishan Medical College, Taian 271000, China. ; Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. ; Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Changchun 130122, China. ; Beijing Key Laboratory of New Molecular Diagnostics Technology, Beijing 100850, China. ; Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China. ; Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, Freetown, Sierra Leone. ; Sierra Leone-China Friendship Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone. ; BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences &Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China. ; Institute of Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China. ; The No. 302 Hospital, Beijing 100039, China. ; The No. 307 Hospital, Beijing 100071, China. ; Department of international cooperation, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing 100044, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing 102206, China. ; 1] Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China [2] Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China [3] Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25970247" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-08-22
    Description: Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) link an antigen recognition domain to intracellular signaling domains to redirect T cell specificity and function. T cells expressing CARs with CD28/CD3 or 4-1BB/CD3 signaling domains are effective at treating refractory B cell malignancies but exhibit differences in effector function, clinical efficacy, and toxicity that are assumed to result from the activation of divergent signaling cascades. We analyzed stimulation-induced phosphorylation events in primary human CD8 + CD28/CD3 and 4-1BB/CD3 CAR T cells by mass spectrometry and found that both CAR constructs activated similar signaling intermediates. Stimulation of CD28/CD3 CARs activated faster and larger-magnitude changes in protein phosphorylation, which correlated with an effector T cell–like phenotype and function. In contrast, 4-1BB/CD3 CAR T cells preferentially expressed T cell memory–associated genes and exhibited sustained antitumor activity against established tumors in vivo. Mutagenesis of the CAR CD28 signaling domain demonstrated that the increased CD28/CD3 CAR signal intensity was partly related to constitutive association of Lck with this domain in CAR complexes. Our data show that CAR signaling pathways cannot be predicted solely by the domains used to construct the receptor and that signal strength is a key determinant of T cell fate. Thus, tailoring CAR design based on signal strength may lead to improved clinical efficacy and reduced toxicity.
    Print ISSN: 1945-0877
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-08-24
    Description: In classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), the host antitumor immune response is ineffective. Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells have multifaceted mechanisms to evade the immune system, including 9p24.1 /CD274(PD-L1)/PDCD1LG2(PD-L2) genetic alterations, overexpression of PD-1 ligands, and associated T-cell exhaustion and additional structural bases of aberrant antigen presentation. The clinical success of PD-1 blockade in cHL suggests that the tumor microenvironment (TME) contains reversibly exhausted T effector cells (Teffs). However, durable responses are observed in patients with β2-microglobulin/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I loss on HRS cells, raising the possibility of non-CD8 + T cell–mediated mechanisms of efficacy of PD-1 blockade. These observations highlight the need for a detailed analysis of the cHL TME. Using a customized time-of-flight mass cytometry panel, we simultaneously assessed cell suspensions from diagnostic cHL biopsies and control reactive lymph node/tonsil (RLNT) samples. Precise phenotyping of immune cell subsets revealed salient differences between cHLs and RLNTs. The TME in cHL is CD4 + T-cell rich, with frequent loss of MHC class I expression on HRS cells. In cHLs, we found concomitant expansion of T helper 1 (Th1)-polarized Teffs and regulatory T cells (Tregs). The cHL Th1 Tregs expressed little or no PD-1, whereas the Th1 Teffs were PD-1 + . The differential PD-1 expression and likely functional Th1-polarized CD4 + Tregs and exhausted Teffs may represent complementary mechanisms of immunosuppression in cHL.
    Keywords: Immunobiology and Immunotherapy, Lymphoid Neoplasia
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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