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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-05-09
    Description: Rapid Arctic warming and sea-ice reduction in the Arctic Ocean are widely attributed to anthropogenic climate change. The Arctic warming exceeds the global average warming because of feedbacks that include sea-ice reduction and other dynamical and radiative feedbacks. We find that the most prominent annual mean surface and tropospheric warming in the Arctic since 1979 has occurred in northeastern Canada and Greenland. In this region, much of the year-to-year temperature variability is associated with the leading mode of large-scale circulation variability in the North Atlantic, namely, the North Atlantic Oscillation. Here we show that the recent warming in this region is strongly associated with a negative trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation, which is a response to anomalous Rossby wave-train activity originating in the tropical Pacific. Atmospheric model experiments forced by prescribed tropical sea surface temperatures simulate the observed circulation changes and associated tropospheric and surface warming over northeastern Canada and Greenland. Experiments from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (ref. 16) models with prescribed anthropogenic forcing show no similar circulation changes related to the North Atlantic Oscillation or associated tropospheric warming. This suggests that a substantial portion of recent warming in the northeastern Canada and Greenland sector of the Arctic arises from unforced natural variability.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ding, Qinghua -- Wallace, John M -- Battisti, David S -- Steig, Eric J -- Gallant, Ailie J E -- Kim, Hyung-Jin -- Geng, Lei -- England -- Nature. 2014 May 8;509(7499):209-12. doi: 10.1038/nature13260.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Quaternary Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia. ; Climate Research Department, APEC Climate Center, 12 Centum 7-ro, Haeundae-gu, Busan 612-020, South Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24805345" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Air ; Arctic Regions ; Canada ; *Feedback ; Global Warming/*statistics & numerical data ; Greenland ; Hot Temperature ; Human Activities ; Ice Cover ; Models, Theoretical ; Pacific Ocean ; Seawater ; *Tropical Climate
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-07
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-31
    Description: Insect pests substantially reduce yields of three staple grains—rice, maize, and wheat—but models assessing the agricultural impacts of global warming rarely consider crop losses to insects. We use established relationships between temperature and the population growth and metabolic rates of insects to estimate how and where climate warming will augment losses of rice, maize, and wheat to insects. Global yield losses of these grains are projected to increase by 10 to 25% per degree of global mean surface warming. Crop losses will be most acute in areas where warming increases both population growth and metabolic rates of insects. These conditions are centered primarily in temperate regions, where most grain is produced.
    Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Ecology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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