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  • 1
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary  This study explores the nowcasting and short-range forecasting (up to 3 days) skills of rainfall over the tropics using a high resolution global model. Since the model-predicted rainfall is very sensitive to model parameters, four key model parameters were first selected. They are the Asselin filter coefficient, the fourth order horizontal diffusion coefficient, the surface moisture flux coefficient, and the vertical diffusion coefficient. The optimal values were defined as those which contributed to the best one day rainfall forecasts in the present study. In order to demonstrate and improve the precipitation forecast skill, several numerical experiments were designed using the 14-level Florida State University Global Spectral Model (FSUGSM) at a resolution of T106. Comparisons were also made of the short-range forecasts obtained from a control experiment subjected to normal mode initialization (NMI) versus experiments based on physical initialization (PI). The latter experiments were integrated using the original FSUGSM and a modified version. This modified FSUGSM was developed here by applying a reverse cumulus parameterization alorithm to the regular forecast model, which restructures the vertical humidity distribution and constrains the large-scale model’s moisture error growth during the model integration. An improved short-range rainfall prediction skill was achieved from the modified FSUGSM in this study. The results showed a better agreement between model-based and observed rainfall intensity and pattern.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Interfacial microstructures of Pd/Ge/Ti/Au ohmic contact to n-type GaAs have been investigated using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and the results are used to interpret the electrical properties. Annealing at 300 °C yields a contact resistance of 0.62 Ω mm and the layer structure is changed to GaAs/PdGe/Au4Ti/TiO. The ohmic contact is formed through a solid phase regrowth of GaAs heavily doped with Ge below the PdGe layer. At 380 °C, the lowest contact resistance of 0.43 Ω mm is obtained. The layer structure is changed to GaAs/(Ge–Ti)/PdGe/TiO. Spikes composed of Au and AuGa are found at the grain boundaries of the PdGe compound. The formation of AuGa at 380 °C reduces the contact resistance through the creation of more Ga vacancies at the interface of GaAs/PdGe, and the incorporation of elemental Ge. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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