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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Neurosciences ; Biomedicine ; Neurosciences ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Three-Dimensional Cultures of Human Neural Stem Cells: An Application for Modeling Alzheimer’s Disease Pathogenesis -- Neural Stem Cell Fate Control on Micropatterned Substrates -- Dopaminergic and GABAergic Neuron In Vitro Differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells -- Transfection of Cultured Primary Neurons -- Reprogramming of Mouse Fibroblasts to Induced Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells -- Isolation and Culture of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells from Pre- and Postnatal Rodent Brain -- Schwann Cell Isolation and Culture Reveals the Plasticity of these Glia -- Generation of Cerebral Organoids Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells -- Development of Mouse Cell Based In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Models -- Microfluidic Device for Studying Traumatic Brain Injury -- Multimodal Neural Stem Cell Research Protocols for Experimental Spinal Cord Injuries -- Real-Time Dual MRI for Predicting and Subsequent Validation of Intra-Arterial Stem Cell Delivery to the Central Nervous System -- Standardized Cryopreservation of Stem Cells -- Isolation and Characterization of Extracellular Vesicles in Stem Cell-Related Studies -- Essential Requirements for Setting Up a Stem Cell Laboratory
    Abstract: This volume provides comprehensive knowledge on the fundamental techniques and detailed laboratory protocols used in stem cell research and their potential application in the field of neuroscience. The chapters in this book cover detailed descriptions of techniques for isolation, maintenance, differentiation, and characterization of neural stem cells, and the development of in vitro stem cell-based neurological disease model. There are detailed methods on leading techniques for stem cell genetic engineering and intra-organ transplantation for research and therapeutic purposes, in vivo imaging of donor stem cells, and essential requirements for setting up a new stem cell laboratory. Neuromethods series offers chapters with key advice and procedure specifics to empower the readers to successfully achieve their own scientific and experimental goals. Cutting-edge and pragmatic, Stem Cell Technologies in Neuroscience is a valuable resource for academic and translational researchers, industry scientists, biology teachers, and life science graduate students to grasp the vital pulse of the rapidly growing field of stem cell research
    Pages: XIV, 240 p. 55 illus., 46 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781493970247
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: The retina, which processes visual information and sends it to the brain, is an excellent model for studying neural circuitry. It has been probed extensively ex vivo but has been refractory to chronic in vivo electrophysiology. We report a nonsurgical method to achieve chronically stable in vivo recordings from single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in awake mice. We developed a noncoaxial intravitreal injection scheme in which injected mesh electronics unrolls inside the eye and conformally coats the highly curved retina without compromising normal eye functions. The method allows 16-channel recordings from multiple types of RGCs with stable responses to visual stimuli for at least 2 weeks, and reveals circadian rhythms in RGC responses over multiple day/night cycles.
    Keywords: Neuroscience, Techniques
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: Heterochromatin formation during early embryogenesis is timed precisely, but how this process is regulated remains elusive. We report the discovery of a histone methyltransferase complex whose nuclear accumulation and activation establish the onset of heterochromatin formation in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. We find that the inception of heterochromatin generation coincides with the accumulation of the histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase MET-2 (SETDB) into nuclear hubs. The absence of MET-2 results in delayed and disturbed heterochromatin formation, whereas accelerated nuclear localization of the methyltransferase leads to precocious H3K9 methylation. We identify two factors that bind to and function with MET-2: LIN-65, which resembles activating transcription factor 7–interacting protein (ATF7IP) and localizes MET-2 into nuclear hubs, and ARLE-14, which is orthologous to adenosine 5'-diphosphate–ribosylation factor-like 14 effector protein (ARL14EP) and promotes stable association of MET-2 with chromatin. These data reveal that nuclear accumulation of MET-2 in conjunction with LIN-65 and ARLE-14 regulates timing of heterochromatin domains during embryogenesis.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: Triclosan (TCS) is a high-volume chemical used as an antimicrobial ingredient in more than 2000 consumer products, such as toothpaste, cosmetics, kitchenware, and toys. We report that brief exposure to TCS, at relatively low doses, causes low-grade colonic inflammation, increases colitis, and exacerbates colitis-associated colon cancer in mice. Exposure to TCS alters gut microbiota in mice, and its proinflammatory effect is attenuated in germ-free mice. In addition, TCS treatment increases activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in vivo and fails to promote colitis in Tlr4 –/– mice. Together, our results demonstrate that this widely used antimicrobial ingredient could have adverse effects on colonic inflammation and associated colon tumorigenesis through modulation of the gut microbiota and TLR4 signaling. Together, these results highlight the need to reassess the effects of TCS on human health and potentially update policies regulating the use of this widely used antimicrobial.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: The present experimental study on permeability characteristics for raw coal under different stress states is implemented by applying the triaxial self-made ‘THM coupled with servo-controlled seepage apparatus for gas-containing coal’; the result indicates that the flow rate of gas in the coal sample gradually decreases with the nonlinear loading of axial pressure and increases with the nonlinear unloading of axial stress and confining pressure. The flow rate, axial stress and confining pressure curves all satisfy the negative exponential function relation. When the sample reaches the peak intensity, the sample will be destroyed and the stress will drop rapidly; then the flow rate of the sample will increase rapidly. At this stage, the flow rate and axial strain show an oblique ‘v' pattern. The flow rate of the coal sample increases nonlinearly with the increase of gas pressure; the relation curve between flow rate and gas pressure satisfies the power function relation. Under the same confining pressure and gas pressure conditions, the larger the axial stress, the smaller the flow rate of the coal sample. Under the same axial stress and gas pressure conditions, the flow rate of the coal sample will first decrease, but then increase as the confining pressure decreases. During the post-peak loading and unloading process, the flow rate of the coal sample will decrease with the loading of confining pressure but increase with the unloading of confining pressure, and there will be an increase in wave shape with the increase in axial strain. The flow rate of each loading and unloading confining pressure is higher than that of the previous loading and unloading confining pressure. At the post-peak stage, the relation curve between the flow rate of the coal sample and the confining pressure satisfies the power function relation in the process of loading and unloading confining pressure.
    Keywords: energy, civil engineering, engineering geology
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-17
    Description: One of the key pathological features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the existence of extracellular deposition of amyloid plaques formed with misfolded amyloid-β (Aβ). The conformational change of proteins leads to enriched contents of β sheets, resulting in remarkable changes of vibrational spectra, especially the spectral shifts of the amide I mode. Here, we applied stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy to image amyloid plaques in the brain tissue of an AD mouse model. We have demonstrated the capability of SRS microscopy as a rapid, label-free imaging modality to differentiate misfolded from normal proteins based on the blue shift (~10 cm –1 ) of amide I SRS spectra. Furthermore, SRS imaging of Aβ plaques was verified by antibody staining of frozen thin sections and fluorescence imaging of fresh tissues. Our method may provide a new approach for studies of AD pathology, as well as other neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein misfolding.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-07-19
    Description: Binding of the glucagon peptide to the glucagon receptor (GCGR) triggers the release of glucose from the liver during fasting; thus GCGR plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Here we report the crystal structure of the seven transmembrane helical domain of human GCGR at 3.4 A resolution, complemented by extensive site-specific mutagenesis, and a hybrid model of glucagon bound to GCGR to understand the molecular recognition of the receptor for its native ligand. Beyond the shared seven transmembrane fold, the GCGR transmembrane domain deviates from class A G-protein-coupled receptors with a large ligand-binding pocket and the first transmembrane helix having a 'stalk' region that extends three alpha-helical turns above the plane of the membrane. The stalk positions the extracellular domain (~12 kilodaltons) relative to the membrane to form the glucagon-binding site that captures the peptide and facilitates the insertion of glucagon's amino terminus into the seven transmembrane domain.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820480/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820480/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Siu, Fai Yiu -- He, Min -- de Graaf, Chris -- Han, Gye Won -- Yang, Dehua -- Zhang, Zhiyun -- Zhou, Caihong -- Xu, Qingping -- Wacker, Daniel -- Joseph, Jeremiah S -- Liu, Wei -- Lau, Jesper -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Katritch, Vsevolod -- Wang, Ming-Wei -- Stevens, Raymond C -- F32 DK088392/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094586/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Y1-CO-1020/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-GM-1104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 25;499(7459):444-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12393. Epub 2013 Jul 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23863937" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Glucagon/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis, Site-Directed ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, CXCR4/chemistry/classification ; Receptors, Glucagon/*chemistry/*classification/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-10-12
    Description: Self-healing materials are notable for their ability to recover from physical or chemical damage. We report that commodity copolymers, such as poly(methyl methacrylate)/n-butyl acrylate [p(MMA/nBA)] and their derivatives, can self-heal upon mechanical damage. This behavior occurs in a narrow compositional range for copolymer topologies that are preferentially alternating with a random component (alternating/random) and is attributed to favorable interchain van der Waals forces forming key-and-lock interchain junctions. The use of van der Waals forces instead of supramolecular or covalent rebonding or encapsulated reactants eliminates chemical and physical alterations and enables multiple recovery upon mechanical damage without external intervention. Unlike other self-healing approaches, perturbation of ubiquitous van der Waals forces upon mechanical damage is energetically unfavorable for interdigitated alternating/random copolymer motifs that facilitate self-healing under ambient conditions.
    Keywords: Materials Science
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: The highest power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) reported for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with inverted planar structures are still inferior to those of PSCs with regular structures, mainly because of lower open-circuit voltages ( V oc ). Here we report a strategy to reduce nonradiative recombination for the inverted devices, based on a simple solution-processed secondary growth technique. This approach produces a wider bandgap top layer and a more n-type perovskite film, which mitigates nonradiative recombination, leading to an increase in V oc by up to 100 millivolts. We achieved a high V oc of 1.21 volts without sacrificing photocurrent, corresponding to a voltage deficit of 0.41 volts at a bandgap of 1.62 electron volts. This improvement led to a stabilized power output approaching 21% at the maximum power point.
    Keywords: Materials Science, Physics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Inflammasomes are intracellular protein complexes that drive the activation of inflammatory caspases. So far, four inflammasomes involving NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 have been described that recruit the common adaptor protein ASC to activate caspase-1, leading to the secretion of mature IL-1beta and IL-18 proteins. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several acquired inflammatory diseases as well as cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes (CAPS) caused by inherited NLRP3 mutations. Potassium efflux is a common step that is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by many stimuli. Despite extensive investigation, the molecular mechanism leading to NLRP3 activation in response to potassium efflux remains unknown. Here we report the identification of NEK7, a member of the family of mammalian NIMA-related kinases (NEK proteins), as an NLRP3-binding protein that acts downstream of potassium efflux to regulate NLRP3 oligomerization and activation. In the absence of NEK7, caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta release were abrogated in response to signals that activate NLRP3, but not NLRC4 or AIM2 inflammasomes. NLRP3-activating stimuli promoted the NLRP3-NEK7 interaction in a process that was dependent on potassium efflux. NLRP3 associated with the catalytic domain of NEK7, but the catalytic activity of NEK7 was shown to be dispensable for activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Activated macrophages formed a high-molecular-mass NLRP3-NEK7 complex, which, along with ASC oligomerization and ASC speck formation, was abrogated in the absence of NEK7. NEK7 was required for macrophages containing the CAPS-associated NLRP3(R258W) activating mutation to activate caspase-1. Mouse chimaeras reconstituted with wild-type, Nek7(-/-) or Nlrp3(-/-) haematopoietic cells showed that NEK7 was required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation in vivo. These studies demonstrate that NEK7 is an essential protein that acts downstream of potassium efflux to mediate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉He, Yuan -- Zeng, Melody Y -- Yang, Dahai -- Motro, Benny -- Nunez, Gabriel -- R01AI063331/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01DK091191/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007517/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32DK094775/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32HL007517/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):354-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16959. Epub 2016 Jan 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. ; The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26814970" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Biocatalysis ; Carrier Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Caspase 1/metabolism ; Catalytic Domain ; Cells, Cultured ; Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes/genetics ; Enzyme Activation ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Inflammasomes/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Interleukin-1beta/secretion ; Macrophages/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Potassium/*metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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