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  • 1
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Keywords: Antibody ; Neurofilament protein ; Protein variant
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Astrocytes ; Glial fibrillary acidic protein ; Image analysis ; Aging ; Development
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Smears of fresh rat brain tissue combined with immunohistochemistry using antiserum to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) were used to visualize individual astrocytes in different cortical regions of rats ranging in age from 1 to 30 months. By computerized image analysis, the cell area and the cell perimeter were determined. Using 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, it was found that GFA-positive astrocytes from cerebellum and hippocampus were significantly larger, both in terms of cell area and cell perimeter, than similar cells from cortex cerebri. The temporal development was carefully followed in smears of the hippocampal formation where a continuous increase in cell size was observed from 1 to 30 months of age. During the first few postnatal months a rapid increase in both cell area and cell perimeter was observed using Sprague-Dawley rats. For studies of senescent animals, Fisher 344 rats specifically bred for aging studies were obtained. Using such animals, a second, highly significant slower growth phase which continued until the longest time points studied was observed. A separate experiment using Sprague-Dawley rats also showed large differences in both cell area and cell perimeter of GFA-positive cerebellum and cortical astrocytes taken from 6-week- and 18-month-old animals. In conclusion, the present study shows that maturation of GFA-positive astrocytes is a process which continues for several months postnatally. This relatively rapid growth phase is followed by a slower increase in cell size, probably continuing throughout life.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Norepinephrine ; Dentate gyrus ; Stimulation of locus coeruleus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of stimulating locus coeruleus (LC) on the response of dentate gyrus granule cells to medial perforant pathway stimulation was studied in anesthetized rats. Field responses were recorded simultaneously at the mid-dendritic and granule cell levels. Two types of responses were recorded: those due to the synchronous firing of granule cell action potentials (population spikes) and those produced by excitatory synaptic activity (evoked synaptic potentials or ESPs). Stimulation of LC prior to stimulating the perforant pathway resulted in a decrease in the ESP (inward current) measured at the dendrites and, in most animals, an increase of the population spike measured at the granule cell level. Although LC stimulation decreased the ESP at the dendrites, the ESP at the granule cell body level (outward current) was not affected. The changes in granule cell responses following LC stimulation are discussed in relation to previous findings in freely moving rats.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Sustained seizures ; GFA ; Laminin ; Neurofilament ; Immunohistochemistry ; Epilepsy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Sustained experimental seizures in rats have previously been shown to cause an extensive necrosis in pars reticulata of substantia nigra (SNPR) and globus pallidus (GP). In the present paper we have studied the effects of hexafluorodiethyl ether-induced seizures on the immunoreactivity seen with antibodies directed against glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFA, used to visualize astrocytes, antibodies to the glycoprotein laminin as a marker for blood vessel walls and neurofilament (NF) antibodies to monitor neuronal disturbances. Already 12 h after a 20-min seizure period a reduction in GFA immunofluorescence intensity was observed in SNPR. After 3 days, marked lesions were noted in SNPR and GP as seen with cresyl violet staining. The lesions contained almost no GFA-positive structures. In the proximity of the lesions, an increase in GFA-immunoreactivity was noted. Such an increase, although less pronounced, was also seen in the major projection areas of SNPR. Two months post-seizure, the gliotic reaction had disappeared, and only a thin and elongated gliotic scar was observed. In spite of the development of a profound central necrosis especially evident in SNPR, both laminin-and NF-immunoreactivity was slightly increased within the lesioned areas. NF-immunoreactivity was also increased in the superior colliculus and in the reticular formation. Two months post-experiment NF-immunofluorescence was normalized but the former lesion sites showed signs of hypervascularization. We conclude that hexafluorodiethyl ether-induced 20-min seizures lead to rapid, localized glial and neuronal changes in the rat brain as evidenced by GFA and NF immunohistochemistry, while the vascular network remains intact.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neurofilament immunoreactive nerve fibers were demonstrated in human skin using indirect immunohistochemical technique with antibodies to neurofilament polypeptides. Neurofilament-positive fibers were seen as free nerve endings in the epidermis and in dermal papilla, in Meissner's corpuscles and as fibers crousing in the dermis. Strongly fluorescent nerve fibers were also seen around hair follicles, sweat gland ducts and sometimes in relation to blood vessels. From the distribution pattern it was concluded that predominantly sensory nerve fibers were labelled and that this technique may be used to study reinnervation of cutaneous sensory nerved following tramatic injuries and surgical procedures.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neurofilaments, part of the cytoskeletal network, and neuron specific enolase, a major enzyme in glycolysis, are both present in central and peripheral neurons. Glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100, on the other hand, are soluble proteins which are found exclusively in the supportive cells of the nervous system, i.e. the glial cells. Examination was made, using immunocytochemistry, of all main areas of the gastrointestinal tract of three mammalian species, rat, pig and man. By applying serial tissue sectioning, it was possible to study the relative occurrences of the two neuronal markers in the same cell bodies and to examine the relationships of the neurons with the glial cells as revealed by the antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100. Both neurofilaments and neuron specific enolase were localised to an extensive system of enteric nerves, with the level of neuron specific enolase-immunoreactivity showing greater variability than that observed using antibodies to neurofilaments. Comparison of the occurrence of neuron specific enolase and neurofilament immunoreactivity in serially sectioned neuronal cell bodies revealed that a minor population stained only with antibodies to neurofilaments. The equivocal or absent neuron specific enolase-immunoreactivity in some perikarya may reflect variations in functional status within the nervous system. Glial fibrillary acidic protein- and S-100-immunoreactivities were confined to glial cells which, in this normal tissue, were always in close association with the neurons. In conclusion, neurofilament-, glial fibrillary acidic protein-and S-100-immunostaining can be used to reveal the enteric nervous system and its supportive cells in these three mammals. The combined use of all these neuronal and non-neuronal markers may be helpful in delineating the enteric nervous system and assessing its morphological and functional status.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to neurofilament proteins, neuron-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 have been used to demonstrate nerves, ganglion cells and the supportive glial system of the innervation of various organs. The female genitalia, the urinary tract, the respiratory system, the pancreas, the heart and the skin of several mammalian species, including rat, mouse, guinea pig, cat, pig, monkey and man were fixed in parabenzoquinone and portions of each organ were snap frozen. Serial or free-floating thick cryostat sections were stained using indirect immunofluorescence and peroxidase anti-peroxidase immunocytochemistry. In addition, the newly described and highly sensitive immunogold-silver staining technique was used on Bouin's-fixed and wax-embedded tissues. Antibodies to neurofilament proteins seemed to react with neuronal structures in all the species studied. Alternately stained serial sections showed a similar distribution of neurofilament proteins and neuron-specific enolase-containing nerves. Neuron-specific enolase staining had a diffuse appearance and was found to be highly variable, indicating that the neuron-specific enolase content might be related to the physiological state of the nerves and ganglion cells, whereas antibodies to neurofilament protein gave a consistently intense and very clear picture of the ganglion cells and nerve fibres. Antibodies to S-100 stained supportive elements of the peripheral nervous system in all tissues examined, whereas antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein were more selective.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Monoclonal antibodies were isolated from mice immunized with chicken gizzard desmin. Antibodies reacting with desmin on immunoblots and selectively decorating chicken and rat intestinal smooth muscle as well as the Z-line in striated muscle, were selected for this study. Based on their staining pattern on cryostat sections of chicken and rat cerebellum, spleen, kidney, aorta and femoral artery, monoclonal supernatants could be divided in three groups: (i) antibodies decorating astrocytes and vascular smooth muscle; (ii) antibodies decorating only vascular smooth muscle; (iii) antibodies decorating only astrocytes. Antibodies in group (i) and (iii) also stained GFA-negative Bergmann glia in chicken cerebellum. It is proposed that desmin may vary depending on the histological localization.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Although some embryological and morphological features speak in favour of a neuronal character of rodent pinealocytes, histochemistry and ultrastructure let this issue appear controversial. Using antibodies to different neurofilaments, the neural adhesion molecule L1, synaptophysin and tubulin as neuronal markers, the pineal glands of rat and guinea-pig were studied by means of immunfluorescence. Neurofilament-immunoreactivity was present in some rat pineal nerve fibers and in the majority of guinea-pig pinealocytes, L1 decorated rat intrapineal nerve fibers, synaptophysin was almost ubiquitously distributed in the pineal of both species, while tubulin-immunofluorescence was seen in nerve fibers of rat and guinea-pig pineal and in some pinealocytes of the latter. These findings speak in favour of the neuronal character of guinea-pig pinealocytes. The lack of neurofilament- and tubulin-immunoreactivity in rat pinealocytes might be attributable to very low concentrations of these proteins or species differences as to their expression. Further studies including in situhybridisation of relevant mRNAs will be necessary to answer these questions definitely.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Glial uptake of serotonin and dopamine was studied in primary cultures of the median raphe nucleus and cerebellum by using consecutive demonstration of monoamine fluorescence and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunofluorescence. Most of the glial cells taking up monoamines were glial fibrillary acidic protein positive. Astrocytes with a strong immunoreactivity exhibited monoamine fluorescence only occasionally, although such cells did take up L-dopa readily. Glial fibrillary acidic protein negative cells — morphologically identified as astrocytes — were seen to exhibit monoamine fluorescence after exposure. Glial uptake of serotonin at a concentration of 10−4 M was detected in cerebellar cultures but not in cultures from the median raphe nucleus. When the concentration was 10−3 M uptake of serotonin took place in both the areas but was weaker in cultures from the median raphe nucleus. At concentrations greater than 10−5 M glial uptake of dopamine was detected in cultures from both the regions studied. No region dependent differences in glial uptake of dopamine was demonstrated, however. Based on these observations astrocytes and astrocyte-like glial cells take up dopamine and serotonin. Also glial cells with a remarkably high content of the glial fibrillary acidic protein are more resistant to monoamine uptake than cells exhibiting less intense or no glial fibrillary acidic protein immunofluorescence. The existence of regional differences in uptake of serotonin between the median raphe nucleus and cerebellum suggests that glial uptake of monoamines is not an entirely passive mechanism but may be actively controlled by glial cells in a region dependent manner.
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