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  • 1
  • 2
    Keywords: HIGH-DOSE CHEMOTHERAPY ; ADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY ; CHILDHOOD MEDULLOBLASTOMA ; PEDIATRIC-ONCOLOGY-GROUP ; outcome prediction ; CHILDRENS CANCER GROUP ; BETA-CATENIN STATUS ; CRANIOSPINAL RADIATION-THERAPY ; STEM-CELL RESCUE ; RISK MEDULLOBLASTOMA
    Abstract: Medulloblastoma is curable in approximately 70 % of patients. Over the past decade, progress in improving survival using conventional therapies has stalled, resulting in reduced quality of life due to treatment-related side effects, which are a major concern in survivors. The vast amount of genomic and molecular data generated over the last 5-10 years encourages optimism that improved risk stratification and new molecular targets will improve outcomes. It is now clear that medulloblastoma is not a single-disease entity, but instead consists of at least four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT/Wingless, Sonic Hedgehog, Group 3, and Group 4. The Medulloblastoma Down Under 2013 meeting, which convened at Bunker Bay, Australia, brought together 50 leading clinicians and scientists. The 2-day agenda included focused sessions on pathology and molecular stratification, genomics and mouse models, high-throughput drug screening, and clinical trial design. The meeting established a global action plan to translate novel biologic insights and drug targeting into treatment regimens to improve outcomes. A consensus was reached in several key areas, with the most important being that a novel classification scheme for medulloblastoma based on the four molecular subgroups, as well as histopathologic features, should be presented for consideration in the upcoming fifth edition of the World Health Organization's classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Three other notable areas of agreement were as follows: (1) to establish a central repository of annotated mouse models that are readily accessible and freely available to the international research community; (2) to institute common eligibility criteria between the Children's Oncology Group and the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Europe and initiate joint or parallel clinical trials; (3) to share preliminary high-throughput screening data across discovery labs to hasten the development of novel therapeutics. Medulloblastoma Down Under 2013 was an effective forum for meaningful discussion, which resulted in enhancing international collaborative clinical and translational research of this rare disease. This template could be applied to other fields to devise global action plans addressing all aspects of a disease, from improved disease classification, treatment stratification, and drug targeting to superior treatment regimens to be assessed in cooperative international clinical trials.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24264598
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0167-4838
    Keywords: Aromatic residue ; I H-NMR ; Somatostatin analog
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Gene 103 (1991), S. 37-43 
    ISSN: 0378-1119
    Keywords: Insertion sequence ; cointegrate ; gene duplication ; recombinant DNA
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-9285
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé L'ordre social représente l'ensemble des conditions qui permettent à chacun de ses membres de ses développer individuellement, et cela en accord avec les besoins de l'être humain et les données de son entourage physico-biologique. Dans de telles conditions, les tensions et conflits ne provoqueraient pas les conséquences entravantes, déformantes et dépravantes que l'on observe dans notre actuel désordre social. Si l'on place l'alcoolisme dans une telle perspective, il apparaît comme un syuptome de désordre social. La présente étude discute des tendances dans le sens d'une orientation sociale contrastant avec certains aspect déficitaires de la société occidentale. On développe un catalogue typologique de stratégies individuelles qui doivent servir à éliminer les situations de stress. L'alcoolisme est ici assimilé à d'autres stratégies évasives et punitives. De plus, on critique le point de vue selon lequel l'alcool réduirait les tensions en facilitant la communication.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Die soziale Ordnung stellt die Gesamtheit jener Bedingungen dar, die es allen Mitgliedern erlauben, sich individuell zu, entfalten, und zwar in Übereinstimmung mit den Bedürfnissen des Menschen und den Gegebenheiten seiner physikalisch-biologischen Umgebung. Unter solchen Umständen würden Spannungen und Konflikte nicht jene behindernden, deformierenden und depravierenden Konsequenzen haben, wie sie in der gegenwärtigen sozialen Unordnung zu beobachten sind. Bringt man den Alkoholismus unter eine solche Perspektive, so erscheint er als eines der Symptome sozialer Unordnung. Die vorliegende Studie diskutiert Tendenzen in Richtung einer Sozialordnung im Kontrast zu gewissen defizitären Aspekten der westlichen Gesellschaft. Es wird ein typologischer Katalog individueller Strategien entworfen, die dem Fertigwerden mit Stress-Situationen dienen. Der Alkoholismus rangiert hier gemeinsam mit anderen evasiven und punitiven Strategien. Dabei wird die Auffassung kritisiert, der Alkohol reduziere Spannungen, indem er die Kommunikation erleichtere.
    Notes: Summary Social order would be the conditions which would permit every human being the opportunity for full individual development while living in a way which enhances the welfare of the human race and of the physical and biological environment. Tension and conflict under such conditions would lack the gross, disabling, deforming and degrading consequences so evident in the present condition of social disorder. In this perspective, alcoholism is seen as but one of the symptoms of social disorder. Tendencies toward social order are discussed and contrasted with the delinquent aspects of western society. A typology of individual strategies for dealing with stress situations is offered, in which alcoholism is related to other evasive and punitive strategies. The contention of some that alcohol may reduce tension by “facilitating communication” is attacked.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen wurden ausgeführt an normalen Lymphoblasten aus Lymphknoten von 10 chirurgischen Patienten onhe hämatologische Erkrankungen. Für die vergleichenden Studien wurde Knochenmark von 6 Patienten mit akuter lymphoblastischer Leukämie erhalten. Die normalen Lymphoblasten wiesen eine bedeutend größere gesamte zelluläre Fläche, gesamte zelluläre Länge, nukleäre Länge sowie zytoplasmische Fläche auf. Diese Unterschiede werden mit Bezug auf den Ursprung leukämischer Lymphoblasten, welche thymischer Abstammung sein mögen, besprochen. Zusätzlich wiesen die leukämischen Lymphoblasten bizarre Zellkernsäcke auf, Duplizierung der Zellkernmembranen sowie eine erhöhte Anzahl von Nukleolen und zerstörten Mitochondrien, Virus-gleiche Strukturen und eine erhöhte Anzahl kleiner Granulen innerhalb der Mitochondrien. Die Lokalisierung von Zentriolen außerhalb der Zellkernsäcke trägt möglicherweise für die erhöhte Sensitivität leukämischer Lymphoblasten fürVincristin bei, in Gegensatz zu leukämischen Myeloblasten oder Monoblasten. Die Anwesenheit von Virusgleichen Strukturen in zerstörten Mitochondrien mag für die Zukunft wichtige Hinweise zur Leukemogenase geben. Es scheint, daß bei lymphoblastischer Leukämie qualitative als auch quantitative ultrastrukturelle Beobachtungen gleichsam wichtig sind und daß die bisherigen Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit Anregung für ein eingehenderes Studium mit mehr fortschrittlichen Techniken bieten.
    Notes: Summary Electron microscopic studies were performed on normal lymphoblasts obtained from lymph nodes from 10 surgical patients without hematologic disease. Bone marrow was obtained from 6 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia for comparison studies. The normal lymphoblast was significantly larger in total cell area, total cell length, nuclear length, and cytoplasmic area. These differences were discussed in regard to the origin of the leukemic lymphoblast which could be of thymic derivation. In addition, the leukemic lymphoblasts showed bizarre nuclear pockets, increased nucleoli, nuclear membrane duplication, increased numbers of disrupted mitochondria, virus-like particles within mitochondria, and increased numbers of small granules within mitochondria. The location of centrioles outside nuclear pockets may make leukemic lymphoblasts more sensitive to vincristine than leukemic myeloblasts or monoblasts. The disrupted mitochondria with associated virus-like particles were exciting findings which may offer important clues to leukemogenesis. It would appear that quantitative and qualitative ultra-structural findings are important in lymphoblastic leukemia and that the preliminary findings in this study be pursued with more sophisticated techniques.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 42.30 ; 42.80
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A method of image enhancement and real-time input of 3-D, microscopic phase objects into a coherent optical pattern recognition system is described. The method consists of directing a low-power laser beam into a microscope objective to produce a real, magnified, coherent image of the specimen under test. The image plane is followed by two successive Fourier transform (FT) planes. In the first FT plane, low and high frequency spatial filters, one of which is photographically produced, are used as pre-processing filters to enhance the image quality. The enhanced signal is imaged from the first FT plane to the second FT plane which contains a matched spatial filter used for specimen identification. The system does not require an expensive incoherent-to-coherent light transducer and in addition, is capable of utilizing both phase and amplitude information from 3-D objects. Examples of results are given.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: It is well known that the mesolimbocortical dopamine pathway is highly active during periods of stress and fear. However, very little research has directly examined how dopamine receptors in this pathway influence fear-related behaviour. The present study examined the effects of selective antagonism of D4, D1 and D2 dopamine receptors of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) on rats' fear behaviour in the elevated plus-maze and the shock-probe burying tests. The results demonstrated that bilateral intra-MPFC infusions of the highly selective D4 antagonist, L-745 870 (0.2, 1 or 10 nmol/0.5 µL), increased the percentage of open-arm entries and open-arm time in the elevated plus-maze test (1 nmol/0.5 µL), and decreased the duration of burying in the shock-probe test (0.2 or 1 nmol/0.5 µL). Furthermore, none of the doses of the D4 antagonist affected measures of general activity or pain sensitivity. Intra-MPFC infusions of the D1 antagonist, SCH-23390 (0.2 or 1 nmol/0.5 µL), or the D2 antagonist, remoxipride (0.2, 1 or 10 nmol/0.5 µL), had no significant behavioural effects in either test. Taken together, these findings suggest that MPFC D4 receptors may play an important role in the mediation of fear-related behaviour.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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