Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Biventricular Pacing. Introduction: The aim of this study is to describe implantation techniques and lead performance for biventricular pacing, dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Methods and Results: A dual-chamber ICD with biventricular pacing was implanted in 87 patients with congestive heart failure (ejection fraction: 0.21 ± 0.09), prolonged QRS duration (161 ± 22 msec), and an indication for ICD therapy. Left ventricular pacing was achieved with a thoracotomy approach (n = 21) or a nonthoracotomy approach (n = 66). With a thoracotomy, biventricular devices were implanted successfully in all patients. During follow-up (17 ± 11 months), 9 patients died (43%), 2 underwent transplantation, and 2 required left ventricular lead revision. At last follow-up, biventricular sensing and capture threshold were 11 ± 5 mV and 1.5 ± 0.8 V, respectively. For nonthoracotomy procedures, two types of coronary sinus (CS) leads were implanted: an over-the-wire lead (n = 45) and a shaped lead (n = 21). The rate of successful implantation (overall: 89%) (over-the-wire 93% vs shaped 81%; P = 0.1) and durations for CS lead placement (66 ± 50 vs 58 ± 34 min, P = 0.6) and the procedure (133 ± 58 vs 129 ± 33 min, P = 0.8) were not different between the two CS leads. During follow-up (11 ± 9 months), 9 patients died (14%), and the shaped CS lead dislodged in 3 patients (3 shaped vs 0 over-the-wire, P = 0.01). At last follow-up, biventricular sensing and capture threshold were 10 ± 4 mV and 1.8 ± 0.7 V, respectively, and there was no difference between over-the-wire and shaped leads. By multivariate analysis, mortality was associated with absence of spironolactone therapy but not procedural features. Conclusion: Nonthoracotomy CS lead implantation is feasible, with a success rate of about 90% and few adverse events. For the remaining 10%, a thoracotomy approach can be completed safely in these ill patients without increased risk for death.
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