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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; MECHANISM ; COPY-NUMBER ; IMPORTIN-ALPHA ; HUMAN HOMOLOG ; SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE ; protein expression ; TARGET GENES ; SEGREGATION GENE CSE1
    Abstract: Proteins of the karyopherin superfamily including importins and exportins represent an essential part of the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery. However, the functional relevance and regulation of karyopherins in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood. Here we identified cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS, exportin-2) and its transport substrate importin-alpha1 (imp-alpha1) among significantly up-regulated transport factor genes in HCC. Disruption of the CAS/imp-alpha1 transport cycle by RNAi in HCC cell lines resulted in decreased tumor cell growth and increased apoptosis. The apoptotic phenotype upon CAS depletion could be recapitulated by direct knockdown of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and partially reverted by XIAP overexpression. In addition, XIAP and CAS mRNA expression levels were correlated in HCC patient samples (r=0.463; P〈0.01), supporting the in vivo relevance of our findings. Furthermore, quantitative mass spectrometry analyses of murine HCC samples (p53-/- versus p53+/+) indicated higher protein expression of CAS and imp-alpha1 in p53-/- tumors. Consistent with a role of p53 in regulating the CAS/imp-alpha1 transport cycle, we observed that both transport factors were repressed upon p53 induction in a p21-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The CAS/imp-alpha1 transport cycle is linked to XIAP and is required to maintain tumor cell survival in HCC. Moreover, CAS and imp-alpha1 are targets of p53-mediated repression, which represents a novel aspect of p53's ability to control tumor cell growth in hepatocarcinogenesis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24799195
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  • 2
    Abstract: MYC oncoproteins are involved in the genesis and maintenance of the majority of human tumors but are considered undruggable. By using a direct in vivo shRNA screen, we show that liver cancer cells that have mutations in the gene encoding the tumor suppressor protein p53 (Trp53 in mice and TP53 in humans) and that are driven by the oncoprotein NRAS become addicted to MYC stabilization via a mechanism mediated by aurora kinase A (AURKA). This MYC stabilization enables the tumor cells to overcome a latent G2/M cell cycle arrest that is mediated by AURKA and the tumor suppressor protein p19(ARF). MYC directly binds to AURKA, and inhibition of this protein-protein interaction by conformation-changing AURKA inhibitors results in subsequent MYC degradation and cell death. These conformation-changing AURKA inhibitors, with one of them currently being tested in early clinical trials, suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice bearing Trp53-deficient, NRAS-driven MYC-expressing hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). TP53-mutated human HCCs revealed increased AURKA expression and a positive correlation between AURKA and MYC expression. In xenograft models, mice bearing TP53-mutated or TP53-deleted human HCCs were hypersensitive to treatment with conformation-changing AURKA inhibitors, thus suggesting a therapeutic strategy for this subgroup of human HCCs.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27213815
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  • 3
    Keywords: PATHWAYS ; GENES ; STRATEGIES ; sensitivity ; MAP KINASES ; INTEGRATION ; KINASE INHIBITORS ; senescence ; ADVANCED HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; JAK/STAT
    Abstract: In solid tumors, resistance to therapy inevitably develops upon treatment with cytotoxic drugs or molecularly targeted therapies. Here, we describe a system that enables pooled shRNA screening directly in mouse hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) in vivo to identify genes likely to be involved in therapy resistance. Using a focused shRNA library targeting genes located within focal genomic amplifications of human HCC, we screened for genes whose inhibition increased the therapeutic efficacy of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. Both shRNA-mediated and pharmacological silencing of Mapk14 (p38alpha) were found to sensitize mouse HCC to sorafenib therapy and prolong survival by abrogating Mapk14-dependent activation of Mek-Erk and Atf2 signaling. Elevated Mapk14-Atf2 signaling predicted poor response to sorafenib therapy in human HCC, and sorafenib resistance of p-Mapk14-expressing HCC cells could be reverted by silencing Mapk14. Our results suggest that a combination of sorafenib and Mapk14 blockade is a promising approach to overcoming therapy resistance of human HCC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25216638
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  • 4
    Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Effective treatments are urgently needed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is usually diagnosed at advanced stages. Signaling via the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway is aberrantly activated in HCC by IGF2 overexpression. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of IGF2 overexpression and its oncogenic activities and evaluate the anti-tumor effects of reducing IGF2 signaling. METHODS: We obtained 228 HCC samples from patients who underwent liver resection, 168 paired non-tumor adjacent cirrhotic liver samples, and 10 non-tumor liver tissues from patients undergoing resection for hepatic hemangioma. We analyzed gene expression, micro RNA (miRNA), and DNA methylation profiles for all samples, focusing on genes in the IGF signaling pathway. IGF2 was expressed in SNU449 and PLC5 HCC cells and knocked down with small hairpin RNAs in Hep3B and Huh7 cell lines. We analyzed these cells for proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and colony formation. We performed studies of mice engineered to express Myc and Akt1 in liver, which develop liver tumors, with or without hepatic expression of Igf2. Mice with xenograft tumors grown from HCC cells were given a monoclonal antibody against IGF1 and IGF2 (BI 836845), along with sorafenib; tumor growth was measured and tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblots. RESULTS: Levels of IGF2 mRNA and protein were increased more than 20-fold in 15% of human HCC tissues, compared with non-tumor liver tissues. Methylation at the fetal promoters of IGF2 was reduced in the HCC samples and cell lines that overexpressed IGF2, compared with those that did not overexpress this gene, and non-tumor tissues. Tumors that overexpressed IGF2 had gene expression patterns significantly associated with hepatic progenitor cell features, stellate cell activation, NOTCH signaling, and an aggressive phenotype (P〈.0001). In mice engineered to express Myc and Akt1 in liver, co-expression of Igf2 accelerated formation of liver tumors, compared to mice with livers expressing only Myc and Akt1, and shortened survival times (P=.02). The antibody BI 836845 blocked phosphorylation of IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) in HCC cell lines and reduced their proliferation and colony formation. In mice with xenograft tumors, injection of BI 836845, with or without sorafenib, slowed tumor growth and increased survival times compared to vehicle or sorafenib alone. BI 836845 inhibited phosphorylation of IGF1R and AKT and reduced decreased tumor vascularization, compared with vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of HCC samples were found to overexpress IGF2, via demethylation of its fetal promoter. Overexpression of IGF2 accelerates formation of liver tumors in mice with hepatic expression of MYC and AKT1, via activation of IGF1R signaling. An antibody against IGF1 and IGF2 slows growth of xenograft tumors and increases survival of these mice.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27614046
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  • 5
    Abstract: The interpatient variability of tumor proteomes has been investigated on a large scale but many tumors display also intratumoral heterogeneity regarding morphological and genetic features. It remains largely unknown to what extent the local proteome of tumors intrinsically differs. Here, we used hepatocellular carcinoma as a model system to quantify both inter- and intratumor heterogeneity across human patient specimens with spatial resolution. We defined proteomic features that distinguish neoplastic from the directly adjacent nonneoplastic tissue, such as decreased abundance of NADH dehydrogenase complex I. We then demonstrated the existence of intratumoral variations in protein abundance that re-occur across different patient samples, and affect clinically relevant proteins, even in the absence of obvious morphological differences or genetic alterations. Our work demonstrates the suitability and the benefits of using mass spectrometry-based proteomics to analyze diagnostic tumor specimens with spatial resolution. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD007052.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29363612
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-04-02
    Description: The interpatient variability of tumor proteomes has been investigated on a large scale but many tumors display also intratumoral heterogeneity regarding morphological and genetic features. It remains largely unknown to what extent the local proteome of tumors intrinsically differs. Here, we used hepatocellular carcinoma as a model system to quantify both inter- and intratumor heterogeneity across human patient specimens with spatial resolution. We defined proteomic features that distinguish neoplastic from the directly adjacent nonneoplastic tissue, such as decreased abundance of NADH dehydrogenase complex I. We then demonstrated the existence of intratumoral variations in protein abundance that re-occur across different patient samples, and affect clinically relevant proteins, even in the absence of obvious morphological differences or genetic alterations. Our work demonstrates the suitability and the benefits of using mass spectrometry-based proteomics to analyze diagnostic tumor specimens with spatial resolution. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD007052.
    Print ISSN: 1535-9476
    Electronic ISSN: 1535-9484
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-11-15
    Description: Upon the aberrant activation of oncogenes, normal cells can enter the cellular senescence program, a state of stable cell-cycle arrest, which represents an important barrier against tumour development in vivo. Senescent cells communicate with their environment by secreting various cytokines and growth factors, and it was reported that this 'secretory phenotype' can have pro- as well as anti-tumorigenic effects. Here we show that oncogene-induced senescence occurs in otherwise normal murine hepatocytes in vivo. Pre-malignant senescent hepatocytes secrete chemo- and cytokines and are subject to immune-mediated clearance (designated as 'senescence surveillance'), which depends on an intact CD4(+) T-cell-mediated adaptive immune response. Impaired immune surveillance of pre-malignant senescent hepatocytes results in the development of murine hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), thus showing that senescence surveillance is important for tumour suppression in vivo. In accordance with these observations, ras-specific Th1 lymphocytes could be detected in mice, in which oncogene-induced senescence had been triggered by hepatic expression of Nras(G12V). We also found that CD4(+) T cells require monocytes/macrophages to execute the clearance of senescent hepatocytes. Our study indicates that senescence surveillance represents an important extrinsic component of the senescence anti-tumour barrier, and illustrates how the cellular senescence program is involved in tumour immune surveillance by mounting specific immune responses against antigens expressed in pre-malignant senescent cells.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kang, Tae-Won -- Yevsa, Tetyana -- Woller, Norman -- Hoenicke, Lisa -- Wuestefeld, Torsten -- Dauch, Daniel -- Hohmeyer, Anja -- Gereke, Marcus -- Rudalska, Ramona -- Potapova, Anna -- Iken, Marcus -- Vucur, Mihael -- Weiss, Siegfried -- Heikenwalder, Mathias -- Khan, Sadaf -- Gil, Jesus -- Bruder, Dunja -- Manns, Michael -- Schirmacher, Peter -- Tacke, Frank -- Ott, Michael -- Luedde, Tom -- Longerich, Thomas -- Kubicka, Stefan -- Zender, Lars -- MC_U120085810/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 9;479(7374):547-51. doi: 10.1038/nature10599.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22080947" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Cancer Vaccines/immunology ; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics/immunology/pathology/prevention & control ; Cell Aging/genetics/*immunology ; Disease Progression ; Genes, ras/genetics ; Hepatocytes/cytology/*immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Humans ; Immunologic Surveillance/*immunology ; Liver/cytology/immunology ; Liver Neoplasms/genetics/*immunology/*pathology/prevention & control ; Mice ; Mice, SCID ; Phagocytosis ; Precancerous Conditions/genetics/*immunology/*pathology/prevention & control
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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