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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Calcium oxalate ; Nephrocalcin ; Chromatography ; Crystallization ; Uronic-acid-rich protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibitor was isolated from human urine using DEAE-Sephacel gel followed by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography and FPLC column. The isolated inhibitor was a uronic-acid-rich protein (UAP). It was found to be a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 35 000 Da as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Inhibitory activity was demonstrated using a calcium oxalate crystallization system. In addition UAP, nephrocalcin (NC) or nephrocalcin-like (NC-like) activity was an effective inhibitor in this system. However, the inhibitory activity of UAP appeared to be higher than that of NC or NC-like activity. This finding suggests that NC or NC-like activity is not only urinary protein with strong inhibitory activity. UAP and probably other proteins also play a role in the control of urinary crystal growth.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1520-6904
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-6904
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-198X
    Keywords: Key words Urinary calculi ; Stone morphology ; Infrared analysis ; Tunisia ; Etiology ; Ammonium urate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The composition of urinary stones in children depends on socioeconomic conditions and hygiene, geographical area, and dietary habits. We analyzed urinary stones from 120 consecutive Tunisian children (81 males, 39 females) aged 5 months to 15 years. The stone was located in the upper urinary tract in 91 cases (76%). Stone analysis included both a morphological examination and an infrared analysis of the nucleus and the inner and peripheral layers. The main components of bladder calculi were whewellite (69%) and struvite (22%), whereas the main component of upper urinary tract calculi was whewellite (67%). The nucleus of bladder stones was composed of ammonium urate (45%), struvite (28%), cystine (10%), and carbapatite (7%). The nucleus of kidney and ureteral calculi was mainly composed of ammonium urate (38%), whewellite (24%), carbapatite (13%), or struvite (11%). Based on stone composition, urinary tract infection was involved in the nucleation or growth of a third of calculi. Endemic urolithiasis involving simultaneous nutritional, metabolic, and infectious factors, and defined by its nucleus composed of ammonium urate without struvite, represented 40% of cases. Exclusive metabolic factors – including genetic diseases such as primary hyperoxaluria, cystinuria, and hypercalciuria – were responsible for less than 25% of cases.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-198X
    Keywords: Key words Cystine urolithiasis ; Cystinuria ; D-Penicillamine ; Tiopronin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Cystine urolithiasis is the only clinical expression of cystinuria, an autosomal recessive genetic defect of the transepithelial transport of cystine and other dibasic amino acids in the kidney. Stones form due to the increased excretion of cystine, which is poorly soluble at normal urine pH. Cystine stones are often resistent to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, so that percutaneous surgery or ureteroscopy are the preferred techniques of stone extraction. Medical preventative treatment is based on high diuresis (≥1.5 l/m2 per day) well distributed throughout the day and night, and urine alkalinization up to pH 7.5 by means of sodium bicarbonate and/or potassium citrate. When these basal measures are ineffective at preventing stone recurrence or dissolving pre-existing stones, sulfhydryl agents such as D-penicillamine or tiopronin, which form highly soluble mixed disulfides with cystine moieties, are to be added to urine dilution and alkalinization, especially when cystine excretion is in excess of 750 mg/day (3 mmol/day). Frequent clinical and ultrasound follow-up is needed to encourage patient compliance and assess efficacy and tolerance of treatment.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1075-4261
    Keywords: urinary calculi ; infrared spectroscopy ; kidney biopsy ; etiology ; papillary calculi ; drug-induced calculi ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Crystal-induced kidney disease is a frequent occurrence in human pathology. It is becoming more and more apparent that knowledge of kidney stone composition and structure appears to be the key for establishing the etiology of stone disease. A number of analytical methods may be applied to stone analysis, but only a few of them are able to quickly and easily provide extensive information on both stone structure and composition relevant for clinical diagnosis. More than 12,000 calculi were analyzed using a combination of microscopic examination, sequential infrared (IR) analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of each part of stone, and quantification of all components present. We also investigated 50 biopsies using FTIR microscopy. Our results confirm that IR spectroscopy is a reliable and accurate technique for both molecular and crystalline identification. Some limitations of standard procedures, because of very small samples or due to absorption band overlap, can be solved using FTIR micromethod or a particular method like IR microscopy. In such cases, the spectrum identification must be conducted in different manners. Until now, spectral identification procedures based on computerized spectra libraries must be used with caution because of false results, mainly for mixtures of mineral compounds. Trained eyes always provide the best results for reading spectra from common stones. In routine practice, accurate identification of all components present in calculi is necessary for understanding urolithiasis mechanisms, but only semiquantitative assessment is sufficient to guide physicians toward establishing correct etiology. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biospectroscopy 3: 347-369, 1997
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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