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  • 1
    Abstract: We have recently identified lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75, also known as PSIP1) as a component of the homologous recombination DNA repair machinery. Through its Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro (PWWP) domain, LEDGF/p75 binds to histone marks associated with active transcription and promotes DNA end resection by recruiting DNA endonuclease retinoblastoma-binding protein 8 (RBBP8/CtIP) to broken DNA ends. Here we show that the structurally related PWWP domain-containing protein, hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein 2 (HDGFRP2), serves a similar function in homologous recombination repair. Its depletion compromises the survival of human U2OS osteosarcoma and HeLa cervix carcinoma cells and impairs the DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of replication protein A2 (RPA2) and the recruitment of DNA endonuclease RBBP8/CtIP to DNA double strand breaks. In contrast to LEDGF/p75, HDGFRP2 binds preferentially to histone marks characteristic for transcriptionally silent chromatin. Accordingly, HDGFRP2 is found in complex with the heterochromatin-binding chromobox homologue 1 (CBX1) and Pogo transposable element with ZNF domain (POGZ). Supporting the functionality of this complex, POGZ-depleted cells show a similar defect in DNA damage-induced RPA2 phosphorylation as HDGFRP2-depleted cells. These data suggest that HDGFRP2, possibly in complex with POGZ, recruits homologous recombination repair machinery to damaged silent genes or to active genes silenced upon DNA damage.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26721387
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: The significance of lactate transporters has been recognized in various cancer types, but their role in urothelial carcinoma remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional importance of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 4 in preclinical models of urothelial carcinoma and to assess its relevance in patient tumors. The association of MCT4 expression with molecular subtypes and outcome was determined in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort and two independent cohorts of patients with urothelial carcinoma. Silencing of MCT4 was performed using siRNAs in urothelial carcinoma cell lines. Effects of MCT4 inhibition on cell growth, apoptosis, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed. Moreover, effects on lactate efflux were determined. The in vivo effects of MCT4 silencing were assessed in an orthotopic xenograft model. MCT4 expression was higher in the basal subtype. Decreased MCT4 methylation and increased RNA and protein expression were associated with worse overall survival (OS). Inhibition of MCT4 led to a reduction in cell growth, induction of apoptosis, and an increased synthesis of ROS. MCT4 inhibition resulted in intracellular accumulation of lactate. In vivo , stable knockdown of MCT4 reduced tumor growth. The expression of MCT4 in urothelial carcinoma is associated with features of aggressive tumor biology and portends a poor prognosis. Inhibition of MCT4 results in decreased tumor growth in vitro and in vivo . Targeting lactate metabolism via MCT4 therefore provides a promising therapeutic approach for invasive urothelial carcinoma, especially in the basal subtype.
    Print ISSN: 1535-7163
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-8514
    Topics: Medicine
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