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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    New York : : Oxford University Press,
    Call number: 04-Zell:422
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: xxiii, 398 p. : , ill.
    ISBN: 0199638306 (v. 1 : hbk.) , 0199638314 (v. 1 : pbk.)
    Series Statement: Practical approach series ;
    Language: English
    Location: DKFZ
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  • 2
    Book
    Book
    New York : : Oxford University Press,
    Call number: 04-Zell:422a
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: xvi, 235 p. : , ill.
    ISBN: 0199638322 (v. 2 : hbk.) , 0199638330 (v. 2 : pbk.)
    Series Statement: Practical approach series ;
    Language: English
    Location: DKFZ
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Haploid cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe exist in one of two mating types, referred to as M and P. Conjugation occurs between cells of opposite mating type and is controlled by the reciprocal action of diffusible pheromones. Loss of function of the sxa2 gene in M cells causes hypersensitivity to the P-factor mating pheromone and a reduction in mating efficiency. Here we demonstrate the secretion of an sxa2-dependent carboxypeptidase that inactivates P-factor by removal of the C-terminal leucine residue.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Schizosaccharomyces pombe ; Pheromone ; Cell cycle arrest ; Gene transcription
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Investigations into sexual differentiation and pheromone response in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are complicated by the need to first starve the cells of nitrogen. Most mating-related experiments are therefore performed on non-dividing cells. Here we overcome this problem by using two mutants that bypass the nutritional requirements and respond to the M-factor mating pheromone in rich medium. The first mutant lacks the cyr1 gene which encodes adenylate cyclase and these cells contain no measurable amounts of cAMP. When M-factor is added to a growing h + cyr1− strain it causes a transient G1 arrest of cell division, transcription of mat1-Pm, and elongation of the cells to form shmoos. The second mutant contains the temperature-sensitive pat1-114 allele. At 30°C this mutant was previously shown not only to bypass the nutritional signal but also to stop growing in a state derepressed for pheromone-controlled functions. We now report that an h + pat1-114 strain growing mitotically at 23°C responds to M-factor. This shows that the pat1 protein kinase can be tuned to derepress nutritional signalling while repressing the other stages in the differentiation process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Cell-free extracts of methane-utilizing bacteria (methylobacteria) were examined for the presence of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Representative organisms of the Type II group had a complete set of enzymes for the operation of this cycle. Members of the Type I group lacked α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. All the methylobacteria examined had an NADH-oxidase which had the properties of a flavoprotein type enzyme. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and gluconate-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was NADP-specific and could only be detected in cell extracts of Type I methylobacteria.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 339 (1989), S. 591-591 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] ROBERT Gennis's Biomembranes is the fourth volume to appear in Springer's Advanced Texts in Chemistry series. The series has an established record of excellence, and this latest addition lives up to expectations. Gennis set out to produce a book that he would like to have had as a student, as well ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are cell surface proteins which help to regulate the physiology of all the major organ systems within higher eukaryotes. They are stimulated by multiple ligands and activate a range of effector molecules to bring about changes in cell behaviour. The use of constitutively active mutants (CAMs) of GPCRs has enabled a better understanding of receptor activation as CAMs exhibit ligand-independent signalling negating the use of ligands. Here we introduce the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a host for producing CAMs, by describing the isolation and characterization of constitutive mutants of the P-factor receptor (Mam2). One mutant Mam2[P261L] contained a single-amino-acid substitution (Pro261 to Leu) within a region of high homology in GPCRs. Substitution of this proline leads to an 18-fold increase in ligand-independent signalling. We utilized Mam2[P261L] to investigate CAM activity by demonstrating that Mam2[P261L] is efficiently trafficked to the cell surface where it can form fully functional oligomeric complexes with the native receptor. Mam2[P261L] also retains the G protein specificity (RG-profile) of the native receptor and only induces constitutive signalling in the same G proteins. Finally, evidence is provided to indicate that CAM activity results from a reduction in the kinetics of G protein binding. This is the first time that S. pombe has been utilized for isolating and characterizing CAMs and the techniques employed will complement the current systems available for studying these important receptors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) help to regulate the physiology of all the major organ systems. They respond to a multitude of ligands and activate a range of effector proteins to bring about the appropriate cellular response. The choice of effector is largely determined by the interaction of individual GPCRs with different G proteins. Several factors influence this interaction, and a better understanding of the process may enable a more rational approach to identifying compounds that affect particular signalling pathways. A number of systems have been developed for the analysis of GPCRs. All provide useful information, but the genetic amenability and relative simplicity of yeast makes them a particularly attractive option for ligand identification and pharmaceutical screening. Many, but not all, GPCRs are functional in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and we have developed reporter strains of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as an alternative host. To provide a more generic system for investigating GPCRs, we created a series of yeast–human Gα-transplants, in which the last five residues at the C-terminus of the yeast Gα-subunit are replaced with the corresponding residues from different human G proteins. These enable GPCRs to be coupled to the Sz. pombe signalling machinery so that stimulation with an appropriate ligand induces the expression of a signal-dependent lacZ reporter gene. We demonstrate the specificity of the system using corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and CRF-related peptides on two CRF receptors. We find that different combinations of ligand and receptor activate different Gα-transplants, and the specificity of the coupling is similar to that in mammalian systems. Thus, CRF signalled through the Gs- and Gi-transplants, consistent with its regulation of adenylate cyclase, and was more active against the CRF-R1A receptor than against the CRF-R2B receptor. In contrast, urocortin II and urocortin III were selective for the CRF-R2B receptors. Furthermore, urocortin, but not CRF, induced signalling through the CRF-R1A receptor and the Gq-transplant. This is the first time that human GPCRs have been coupled to the signalling pathway in Sz. pombe, and the strains described in this study will complement the other systems available for studying this important family of receptors.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: 10 000 herrings from the commercial fisheries around the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland were examined for the nematode larva Anisakis sp. between October 1968 and October 1970. Heavy infestations were found in the North Sea stocks, moderate infestations west of Scotland and minimal infestations elsewhere; but nowhere was the parasite completely absent. Younger fish were often found to be more heavily infested than older fish and it is therefore suggested that the accumulation of larvae in the body cavity may be affected by annual fluctuations either in the population of an infested first intermediate host or in the extent to which the herrings are feeding on this host. A small but constant proportion of the parasites penetrate the musculature of the herring regardless of other factors such as the age or length of the host, or the number of other larvae present.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Members of the kexin family of processing enzymes are responsible for the cleavage of many proproteins during their transport through the secretory pathway. The enzymes are themselves made as inactive precursors and we have investigated the activation of Krp1, a kexin from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. As Krp1 is essential for cell growth, we have used a krp1ts strain to investigate the role of the prosequence in the activation process. Mutations that reduce either the efficiency with which the prosequence is released or the rate at which the released prosegment is subsequently cleaved at an internal site are less active when assayed in vivo. We also show that prosegments lacking an internal dibasic motif can act as autoinhibitors and prevent activation of the catalytic fragment. Krp1 constructs containing prosequences based on these inhibitors do not become active in vitro. Surprisingly, the same constructs do become active in the intact cell and appear to suggest that alternative activation processes can be used by these enzymes.
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