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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cyclophosphamide (Cy; 150 mg/kg) was administered (i.p.) to groups of Sprague-Dawley rats followed two days later by immunization with ovalbumin (OVA). From that time, cyclosporin A (CsA; 25 mg/kg) or its vehicle was given (p.o.) for a further 13 days. Control animals tested 14 days after immunization, showed strong Arthus-like and modest delayed-type skin reactions to OVA, in contrast to almost total inhibition in animals tested with Cy, CsA or both. Similar effects were observed with respect to serum anti-OVA antibody levels. Despite itself producing lymphopenia, CsA had no additional effect on the lymphocyte depletion caused by Cy. Both drugs, either alone or in combination, caused neutrophilia and monocytosis. An additional eosinophilia due to Cy was prevented by CsA. Cy induced splenomegaly, nodal extramedullary haemopoiesis and increases in both tissue eosinophils and marrow neutrophils. There was also lymphoid depletion in both spleen and lymph nodes which was enhanced by CsA. Thymic lymphoid atrophy was found only when CsA was given. Despite the powerful immunosuppressive properties of both drugs, detailed biochemical and structural analyses showed no other synergistic toxicity, apart from modest hepatic abnormalities. In particular, there was no enhancement of the nephrotoxicity of CsA.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Hyperosmolar diabetic coma ; erythrocytes ; diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a study of 10 diabetic patients, each of whom was in a severely decompensated state, notable alteration of blood flow properties was observed in those six patients who were hyperosmolar. In this form of diabetic decompensation, whole blood filtration was distinctly impaired. The additional impairment was shown to be due to an accumulation of solute within the erythrocytes occurring as a consequence of hyper-osmolarity. The alterations in erythrocytes were revealed by Coulter blood count abnormalities and confirmed by osmotic fragility studies. When biochemical improvement was achieved in these patients, rapid resolution of the erythrocyte abnormalities occurred. Microvascular ischaemia due to such erythrocyte alterations may be a possible explanation for the characteristic cerebral disturbances of the hyperosmolar diabetic state. Altered blood flow properties would also promote vascular thrombosis, a common terminal event in the hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome with associated 50 per cent mortality. An improved design of the insulin and fluid replacement therapy for patients in hyperosmolar diabetic coma might be based on the findings of these and further studies.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diabetologia 20 (1981), S. 583-584 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Coulter mean red cell volume ; diabetes ; blood glucose ; glycosylated haemoglobin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The Coulter mean red cell volume was found to be significantly elevated in a sample of 100 diabetic patients compared with 200 normal subjects (p 〈 0.01). There was no correlation between the mean red cell volume level and the type of diabetes, its method of treatment or degree of control as measured by random blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: When plaice were injected intraperitoneally with either oyster glycogen or live Vibrio alginolyticus an acute cellular inflammatory response was observed. The duration of these responses, 7 and 15 days respectively, exceeded the time course of the mammalian cellular inflammatory reaction. Peak leucocyte numbers were found at 2–3 days and neutrophils, which were phagocytic, were more numerous than macrophages. Although the increase in macrophage numbers was less marked, these cells appeared more actively phagocytic than neutrophils. Cortisol injections and environmentally-induced stress caused a significant reduction in the extent of inflammatory cell infiltrates, while endotoxin significantly enhanced the response.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 77 (1970), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A pregnant woman developed toxic haemolytic anaemia as a result of a pica for toilet air-freshener blocks whose chief constituent is paradichlorobenzene.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Administration of cyclophosphamide to Sprague-Dawley rats 2 days before immunization with ovalbumin in complete Freund's adjuvant resulted in a striking blood, bone marrow. and tissue eosinophilia. The number of circulating eosinophils reached a maximum (50-fold increase above normal) 2 weeks after immunization, and eosinophils were also prominent in bone marrow, lymph nodes (paracortical areas), spleen (while and red pulp), and liver. The eosinophilia could be inhibited by daily oral administration of cyclosporin A (CsA), although its effect was dependent both on the duration of treatment and on the dosage of CsA. A similar, inhibitory action of CsA was demonstrated with respect to methotrexate-induced eosinophilia. This experimental model may prove useful in the study of factors regulating eosinophil production and in examining the prospective value of CsA in the treatment of conditions where eosinophils play a central role.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Erythrocyte aging ; Erythrocyte indices ; Exercise ; Exertion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The red cell population in peripheral venous blood was characterised in 7 young males before and up to 16 days after a 21.1 km road race. There was a 1.9±2.4% (mean±SD) reduction in plasma volume immediately post race (p〈0.05), an increase in serum osmolality from 277±4 mOsm·kg−1 to 291±14 mOsm·kg−1 (p〈0.05) and a reduction in red cell water (64.4±0.3% to 63.4±0.4%,p〈0.001). The latter was consistent with alterations in the manually derived MCV and MCHC values although the same Coulter derived values were unaltered. A concomitant increase in median red cell density in whole blood (1.1045±0.0009 g·ml−1 pre race to 1.1057±0.012 g·ml−1 immediate post race,p〈0.05) was recorded by centrifugation through phthalate esters of different density. The changes in creatine content of the red cells suggested that during the race younger cells were released into the circulation but that 24 h to 72 h after the race the mean red cell age had increased. Similarly, fractionation of the red cells on discontinuous Percoll density gradients indicated that the cell population was significantly denser in all post race samples up to 72 h but had normalized by a 16 day sample; the osmotic fragility was similarly affected. The reticulocyte count did not significantly increase throughout the experiment but the mean red cell creatine content was elevated 16 days post exercise compared with the pre-race value suggesting a possible increase in erythropoiesis between 72 h and 16 days post race. The study shows that exercise of this type may induce a small reduction in mean red cell survival time but that this does not immediately change erythropoietic activity.
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