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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Glutathione (GSH) is an abundant cellular thiol which has been implicated in many cellular processes including protection against xenobiotics, carcinogens and free radicals. Utilization of GSH in both enzymic and non-enzymic defence mechanisms results in its conversion to the oxidized form (GSSG), and it must be recycled to GSH to maintain the high intracellular ratio of GSH to GSSG. Glutathione reductase (GLR) is a flavoenzyme, which catalyses reduction of GSSG to GSH using the reducing power of NADPH. We show that yeast mutants deleted for GLR1, encoding glutathione reductase, lack GLR activity and accumulate increased levels of GSSG. In addition, the glr1 mutant strain was unaffected in the inducible adaptive response to hydrogen peroxide, but showed increased sensitivity to oxidants including both peroxides and superoxide, indicating a requirement for GLR in protection against oxidative stress. Furthermore, GLR1 expression was elevated two to threefold in the presence of oxidants, and regulation was dependent upon the yAP-1 transcriptional activator protein. Thus, GLR1 is one of a growing number of genes involved in the protection of yeast cells against oxidative stress and regulated by yAP-1.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Yeast ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Sporulation mutants ; Reporter genes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Reporter genes consisting of sporulation-specific promoters fused to lacZ were used as markers to monitor the sporulation pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains transformed with these lacZ gene fusions expressed β-galactosidase (assayable on plates using the substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside, X-gal) in a sporulation-dependent manner. Mutagenesis experiments performed on transformed strains resulted in the recovery of a number of novel sporulation mutants. Three classes of mutants were obtained: those which overexpressed the reporter gene under sporulation conditions, those which did not express the gene under any conditions, and those which expressed the gene in vegetative cells not undergoing sporulation. On the basis of the blue colony-colour produced in the presence of X-gal these have been described as superblue, white, and blue vegetative mutants, respectively. These were further characterised using earlier reporter genes and other marker systems. This study established that the multicopy reporter plasmids chosen do not interfere with sporulation; they are valid tools for monitoring the pathway and they provide a way to isolate mutations not readily selected by other markers.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Oxidative stress ; Glutathione ; Yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Glutathione (GSH) is an abundant cellular thiol which has been implicated in numerous cellular processes and in protection against stress caused by xenobiotics, carcinogens and radiation. Our experiments address the requirement for GSH in yeast, and its role in protection against oxidative stress. Mutants which are unable to synthesis GSH due to a gene disruption inGSH 1, encoding the enzyme for the first step in the biosynthesis of GSH, require exogenous GSH for growth under non-stress conditions. Growth can also be restored with reducing agents containing a sulphydryl group, including dithiothreitol, β-mercaptoethanol and cysteine, indicating that GSH is essential only as a reductant during normal cellular processes. In addition, theGSH 1-disruption strain is sensitive to oxidative stress caused by H2O2 and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. The requirement for GSH in protection against oxidative stress is analogous to that in higher eukaryotes, but unlike the situation in bacteria where it is dispensable for growth during both normal and oxidative stress conditions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Maltose ; Maltase ; Maltose transcriptional activator ; Yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To utilise maltose as a carbon source Saccharomyces cerevisiae needs one or more functional MAL loci that contain the MALx1 gene encoding maltose permease, MALx2 encoding maltase, and MALx3 encoding a transcriptional activator. Maltose causes a rapid MALx3-dependent induction of MAL gene transcription, and glucose represses this activation via Mig1p. A MALx3 gene conveying high MAL gene expression in the absence of maltose in a malx3 laboratory mutant strain has been isolated from baker's yeast. The construction of hybrid genes between the isolated gene and a highly regulated MALx3 gene showed that constitutivity was the result of multiple amino-acid alterations throughout the structural gene. The combined effect of these amino-acid alterations was shown to be stronger than the sum of their individual effects on constitutivity. Analysis in glucose-repressed conditions confirmed that increased MALx3 transcript levels increased the glucose insensitivity of MAL gene expression but did not affect constitutivity. Analysis of four mutations between aa 343 and 375, lying within a proposed negative regulatory domain, showed that the single mutation of Leu343Phe increased the glucose insensitivity of MAL gene expression by 30-fold. These results demonstrate that not only Mig1p modulation of MALx3 expression, but also the MALx3 protein structure, is involved in the glucose-insensitive expression of the MAL genes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Divergent promoter ; Maltose ; Transcriptional reporter ; MEL1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Many sets of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are divergently transcribed, but at present there are no vectors generally available for the simultaneous analysis of divergent transcription from these promoters. In the present study MEL1 and lacZ were used to construct a vector capable of measuring the divergent expression initiated by the MAL6T-MAL6S bi-directional promoter. Our observations demonstrate that the expression of both reporter genes was regulated in a similar fashion to the native MAL6T and MAL6S genes, and that induction was dependent upon the presence of a functional MALR activator gene. The results confirmed that the MAL6T-MAL6S promoter was co-ordinately regulated, repressed by glucose, induced by maltose, and that basal expression was more active in the MAL6S direction than in the MAL6T direction.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words  Oxidative stress ; Glutathione ; Yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract   Glutathione (GSH) is an abundant cellular thiol which has been implicated in numerous cellular processes and in protection against stress caused by xenobiotics, carcinogens and radiation. Our experiments address the requirement for GSH in yeast, and its role in protection against oxidative stress. Mutants which are unable to synthesis GSH due to a gene disruption in GSH 1, encoding the enzyme for the first step in the biosynthesis of GSH, require exogenous GSH for growth under non-stress conditions. Growth can also be restored with reducing agents containing a sulphydryl group, including dithiothreitol, β-mercaptoethanol and cysteine, indicating that GSH is essential only as a reductant during normal cellular processes. In addition, the GSH 1-disruption strain is sensitive to oxidative stress caused by H2O2 and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. The requirement for GSH in protection against oxidative stress is analogous to that in higher eukaryotes, but unlike the situation in bacteria where it is dispensable for growth during both normal and oxidative stress conditions.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NG) induces certain classes of multiple mutations in yeast at high frequency. By selecting for mutation at one locus (his4 or leu1) one frequently obtains double mutants where another mutation to temperature sensitivity has also been induced. This multiple mutagenesis exhibits a considerable specificity: for mutation at one particular locus there is a high chance that another mutation will be found in the same cell at one of a restricted number of other loci. For any given locus (e.g. his4) there is a spectrum of sites at which temperature-sensitivity mutations are coinduced. This spectrum differs for different loci, such that the spectrum of sites co-mutating with leul differs completely from that for sites co-mutating with his4. This NG-induced co-mutation is interpreted in terms of NG acting to enhance mutagenesis at sites of simultaneous DNA replication within the cell. The results so obtained indicate a very strict control over the order and timing of gene replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it is suggested that it is now possible to use NG double mutagenesis to try and locate origins of replication in yeast.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Yeast ; Lipoamide dehydrogenase ; 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase ; Pyruvate dehydrogenase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In Saccharomyces cerevisiae a nuclear recessive mutation, lpd1, which simultaneously abolishes the activities of lipoamide dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase has been identified. Strains carrying this mutation can grow on glucose or poorly on ethanol, but are unable to grow on media with glycerol or acetate as carbon source. The mutation does not prevent the formation of other tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes such as fumarase, NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase or succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, but these are produced at about 50%–70% of the wild-type levels. The mutation probably affects the structural gene for lipoamide dehydrogenase since the amount of this enzyme in the cell is subject to a gene dosage effect; heterozygous lpd1 diploids produce half the amount of a homozygous wild-type strain. Moreover, a yeast sequence complementing this mutation when present in the cell on a multicopy plasmid leads to marked overproduction of lipoamide dehydrogenase. Homozygous lpd1 diploids were unable to sporulate indicating that some lipoamide dehydrogenase activity is essential for sporulation to occur on acetate.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Molecular genetics and genomics 220 (1990), S. 283-288 
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Chorismate mutase ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Repression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO7 gene was cloned by screening a wild-type gene bank for complementation of an aro7 auxotrophic mutant. In vitro mutagenesis of the isolated plasmid (pJFB1) gave several transformants resistant to levels of the phenylalanine analogue 2-thienylalanine inhibitory to the wild-type transformant. Chorismate mutase assays indicated that two of the mutants (J14-26IV6 and J14-26IV9) were resistant to feedback inhibition by tyrosine displayed by wild-type strains. Analysis of the effect of other aromatic amino acids on chorismate mutase activity showed that tryptophan counteracted this inhibition. Analysis of the effect of tyrosine in the growth medium on enzyme activity indicated that the wild-type ARO7 gene was repressed by tyrosine, a phenomenon not previously reported. Two of the 2-thienylalanine resistant mutants (J14-26IV3 and J14-26IV9) appeared to be resistant to this repression. Transcriptional analysis confirmed that the level of ARO7 transcript decreased with increasing tyrosine concentration. In stain J14-26IV9 the ARO7 transcript level was not affected. J14-26IV9, therefore, appears to be a double mutant, resistant to both feedback inhibition and repression by tyrosine.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Gene regulation ; TUF ; Pyruvate decarboxylase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The upstream activation site of the pyruvate decarboxylase gene, PDC1, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains an RPG box, and mediates the increase in expression of a PDC1-lacZ fusion gene during growth on glucose. Oligonucleotide replacement experiments indicate that the RPG box functions as an absolute activator of expression, but other elements (possibly CTTCC repeats) are required for carbon source regulation, and maximal expression. Gel retardation and oligonucleotide competition experiments suggest that the DNA binding factor TUF interacts with the RPG box in the upstream region of PDC1. Binding of TUF factor is not carbon source dependent in in vitro experiments, and is probably not responsible for glucose induction of PDC1 expression.
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