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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Inorganic chemistry 11 (1972), S. 1338-1343 
    ISSN: 1520-510X
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 82 (1960), S. 4425-4426 
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Subject(s): Key words Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ; impaired glucose tolerance ; specific insulin ; peripheral arterial disease ; epidemiology ; population-based survey ; Caucasians.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We investigated the cross-sectional association between peripheral arterial disease and glycaemic level in an age, sex, and glucose tolerance stratified random sample from a 50–74-year-old Caucasian population. Subjects treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin were classified as having known diabetes mellitus (KDM) (n = 67). Using two oral glucose tolerance tests, and based on World Health Organisation criteria, all other participants were categorized as having a normal (NGT) (n = 288), an impaired (IGT) (n = 170), or a diabetic (NDM) (n = 106) glucose tolerance. Prevalence rates of ankle-brachial pressure index less than 0.90 were 7.0 %, 9.5 %, 15.1 % and 20.9 % in NGT, IGT, NDM and KDM subjects, respectively (chi-square test for linear trend: p 〈 0.01). Prevalence rates of any peripheral arterial disease (ankle-brachial pressure index 〈 0.90, at least one monophasic or absent Doppler flow curve or vascular surgery) were 18.1 %, 22.4 %, 29.2 % and 41.8 % in these categories (chi-square test for linear trend: p 〈 0.0001). The prevalence of any peripheral arterial disease was higher in KDM and NDM than in NGT (p 〈 0.03, p 〈 0.0001, respectively), whereas no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between IGT and NGT. The same applied when using the ankle-brachial pressure index criterion. Logistic regression analyses showed that any arterial disease was significantly associated with HbA1 c, fasting and 2-h post-load plasma glucose after correction for cardiovascular risk factors (odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals 1.35; 1.10–1.65 per %, 1.20; 1.06–1.36 and 1.06; 1.01–1.12 per mmol/l, respectively), whereas it was not associated with fasting and 2-h post-load specific insulin. Ankle-brachial pressure indices were not associated with either plasma glucose parameters or insulin in univariate or multivariate analyses. In conclusion, parameters of glucose tolerance are independently associated with any peripheral arterial disease, whereas insulin is not. [Diabetologia (1995) 38: 86–96]
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Subject(s): Keywords Intra-individual variation ; glucose ; specific insulin ; proinsulin ; oral glucose tolerance test ; reproducibility.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We studied the intra-individual variation in plasma glucose, specific serum insulin and serum proinsulin concentrations, measured by two 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests in an age, sex, and glucose tolerance stratified random sample from a 50–74-year-old Caucasian population without a history of diabetes mellitus. The intra-individual variation was assessed by the standard deviation of the test-retest differences (SDdif). For subjects with normal (n = 246), impaired glucose tolerance (n = 198), and newly detected diabetes (n = 80) classified at the first test, the following (SDdif/median level of individual average scores) were found: fasting glucose: 0.4/5.4, 0.5/5.9 and 0.7/7.2 mmol/l; 2-h glucose: 1.3/5.6, 1.8/8.5 and 2.3/12.8 mmol/l; fasting insulin: 23/76, 32/89 and 30/116 pmol/l; 2-h insulin: 190/303, 278/553 and 304/626 pmol/l; fasting proinsulin: 4/8, 6/13 and 9/18 pmol/l; 2-h proinsulin: 19/49, 23/84 and 33/90 pmol/l, respectively. In both glucose, proinsulin and insulin concentrations the total intra-individual variation was predominantly determined by biological variation, whereas analytical variation made only a minor contribution. The SDdif can easily be interpreted, as 95 % of the random test-retest differences will be less than 2 · SDdif, or in terms of percentage, less than (2 · SDdif/median level of individual average scores) · 100. Therefore, for subjects with normal glucose tolerance, 95 % of the random test-retest differences will be less than 15 % (fasting glucose), 46 % (2-h glucose), 61 % (fasting insulin), 125 % (2-h insulin), 100 % (fasting proinsulin) and 78 % (2-h proinsulin) of the median value of the individual average scores. No substantial independent association of either age, gender or obesity with the intra-individual variation in glucose, proinsulin, or insulin concentrations was found. [Diabetologia (1996) 39: 298–305]
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Subject(s): Keywords Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ; impaired glucose tolerance ; specific insulin ; carotid artery stenosis ; epidemiology ; population-based survey ; Caucasians.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cross-sectional associations between carotid artery stenosis (CAS) on the one hand, and parameters of glycaemia and specific insulin levels on the other, were investigated in an age, sex, and glucose tolerance stratified random sample from a 50–74-year-old Caucasian population. Subjects treated with insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agents were classified as having known diabetes mellitus (KDM) (n = 66). Using two oral glucose tolerance tests, and based on the World Health Organisation criteria, all other participants were classified as having a normal (NGT) (n = 287), an impaired (IGT) (n = 169) or a diabetic (NDM) (n = 106) glucose tolerance. CAS was defined haemodynamically using duplex scanning. The crude prevalences of only moderate (16–49 %) CAS were 6.6 %, 7.1 %, 5.7 % and 12.1 % in NGT, IGT, NDM and KDM subjects, respectively. For any severe ( ≥ 50 %) CAS, crude prevalences were 2.8 %, 4.7 %, 9.4 % and 7.6 %. The prevalence of any severe CAS was higher in NDM (p 〈 0.01) and KDM subjects (p = 0.07) than in NGT subjects. The prevalence of a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack was 1.7 %, 1.8 %, 2.8 % and 1.5 % in NGT, IGT, NDM and KDM, respectively. In univariate logistic regression analysis, HbA1 c, serum fructosamine, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose were significantly associated with any severe CAS. In multivariate analyses controlling for other risk factors, only HbA1 c and 2-h post-load plasma glucose remained significantly associated (odds ratios: 1.29 per % and 1.09 per mmol/l, respectively) in separate models. No association could be shown between either fasting or 2-h post-load specific insulin and any severe CAS in either univariate or multivariate analyses. In conclusion, HbA1 c and 2-h post-load plasma glucose are independently associated with any severe CAS, whereas specific insulin is not. [Diabetologia (1997) 40: 290–298]
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mouthwashes can be used as a DNA resource for mutation detection and, because collection and DNA isolation is simple and cheap, they could in particular, be used for large numbers of samples. To determine the failure rate (the proportion of mouth samples in which no PCR product was obtained) and the specificity of buccal epithelial cell mutation detection in large numbers of samples, we collected mouthwashes and blood samples from 11 413 blood donors and tested the mouthwashes for the ΔF508 mutation, which has an estimated frequency of 75% among cystic fibrosis chromosomes in The Netherlands. Blood samples were tested for the ΔF508 mutations only if the mutation was identified in the mouthwash or in the case of a failure to obtain PCR products. The sensitivity of the test was determined in mouthwashes of 75 ΔF508 carriers known from earlier family studies. These samples were offered blindly between the mouthwashes of the blood donors. Both specificity and sensitivity of the mouthwash procedure were 100%. The overall failure rate was 5.6%. This large figure was caused mainly by insufficient rinsing of the mouth in one particular blood bank. Exclusion of the results of this blood bank reduced the failure rate to 1.8%. Our results also confirm that for a large number of samples the mouthwash procedure is suitable for mutation detection and, with proper instructions, can be used in community screening.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An average cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier frequency of 1 in 25 in Europe is cited in numerous reports, although a great variability in estimated prevalences has been found in different European populations. The estimates of these frequencies were based on numbers of CF patients before identification of the gene in 1989. Here we report the results of a study to determine the carrier frequency of the ΔF508 mutation in The Netherlands by analyzing mouthwashes and matched blood samples from 11 654 blood donors all over the country. We analyzed possible relationships between a number of theoretically explanatory variables and the ΔF508 carrier frequency by means of univariate and multivariate logistic regression. These variables were: distance of the blood banks from the northeastern part of the country (distance); whether the blood donors knew that we were looking for a CF mutation; sex and age of the donor; and number of children of the donor (family size). We detected a ΔF508 carrier frequency of 1 in 42 (95% CI 1/37–1/47) in The Netherlands. If we assume that the relative frequency of the ΔF508 mutation among carriers and patients is comparable in The Netherlands, this gives an estimated overall CF carrier frequency of 1 in 32 (95% CI 1/28–1/36), significantly less than 1 in 25. The univariate logistic regression analysis of the effects of the explanatory variables on the carrier frequency revealed no significant relationships, except for an increase in carrier frequency with increasing distance from the northeastern region. In the multivariate analysis with all five independent variables, distance, age and family size were significantly related to the carrier frequency, but sex and CF information were not. There was a significant interaction between age and family size. In our final model, distance, age and family size were positively related to the carrier frequency, while the interaction of age with family size showed a negative relation. These results confirm that there is a gradient in gene frequency with low frequencies in the northeastern part of the country and high frequencies in the southern part. They also suggest a relation of age and family size with carrier frequency. This relation, however, is too complex to be explained by heterozygote advantage.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The G985A mutation represents about 90% of all medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) allele mutations that cause the clinical symptoms of MCAD deficiency. The prevalence of carriers varies between different European populations, with high frequencies in the northwestern part of Europe. To determine the prevalence of MCAD carriers with the G985A mutation in The Netherlands, we collected 6195 Guthrie cards of newborns. Mutation detection was performed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in which a NcoI restriction site was created in the presence of a G985A mutation in the PCR product, followed by NcoI digestion, and gel electrophoresis. We detected a G985A carrier frequency of 1 in 59 (95% CI 1/50–1/73) in The Netherlands. The total prevalence of carriers was estimated to be 1 in 55 (95% CI 1/46– 1/68), based on a relative G985A frequency of 94% in The Netherlands.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 184 (1959), S. 224-226 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Introduction (K. P. Oakley) IN 1950 it was shown1 by the fluorine method of relative dating that the Piltdown mandible and cranial bones were considerably younger geologically than the Lower and Middle Pleistocene fossils said to have been found at the same site. Assuming that they were genuine ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 54 (1973), S. 308-314 
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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