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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Blessed test score ; astrocyte ; classical senile plaque ; βA4 classical deposits
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Glutamine synthetase (GS), a metabolic marker of the mature astrocyte, was investigated in the temporal neocortex of postmortem brain samples of 8 cases, either not demented or affected by senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. A negative correlation between the GS protein level and the density of both classical βA4 deposits and senile plaques was evidenced. Such a correlation for GS underlies a dysfunction of the astroglial metabolism and particularly of the glutamate and ammonia neutralization. Since GS is sensitive to oxidative lesioning, the changes in GS level that were observed, occurring at the posttranslational stage, might reflect oxidative damage and have severe consequences on the pathological cascade of events.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Islet of Langerhans ; Aging ; Insulin-secreting cells ; Organ culture ; Electron microscopy ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The B-cells of the endocrine pancreas constitute an adequate model for in vitro study of the aging process in highly differentiated cells. In the present study, collagenase-isolated islets of Langerhans from young and senescent rats were cultured up to 28 days. The response of the B-cells to the stimulatory conditions of the culture medium involved the nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and secretory granules. Correlated data from light microscopy, electron microscopy, and insulin radioimmunoassay show that the differentiation and function of senescent B-cells are maintained in culture, as it has been proven for the B-cells of younger animals. On the other hand, signs of cytological deficiency not directly concerned with the specific function of B-cells were observed: abnormal mitochondria and lysosomes are more numerous in the senescent B-cells. The proliferative capacity of the B-cells of aged rats is reduced.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We established the cartography of 11 exo- and endopeptidases in the frontal and parietal cortices and in the cerebellum of brains of patients diagnosed with a senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT). Comparison with those of four subjects who had died without known neurologic or psychiatric illness indicated that there existed a region-specific alteration of the peptidase contents in the disease. In the frontal area of SDAT brains, postproline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase and aminopeptidase M activities were significantly reduced. In the parietal cortex of SDAT brain, activities of three additional endopeptidases—angiotensin-converting enzyme, proline endopeptidase, and endopeptidase 24.15—were also drastically reduced. In contrast, the cerebellum displayed a set of proteolytic activities that remained unaffected in SDAT brain. The putative influence of the disease on the catabolic fates of neurotensin, neuropeptide Y, and somatostatin(1–14) was investigated. Neurotensin was catabolized at identical rates in the frontal and parietal cortices in nondemented and SDAT brains. In contrast, neuropeptide Y metabolism was slowed down in SDAT brains in the frontal but not in the parietal cortex. Finally, the degradation velocities of somatostatin(1–14) were lowered in both cortical areas of SDAT brains. It is interesting that, by means of specific peptidase inhibitors, we demonstrated that endopeptidase 24.15 participated in somatostatin(1–14) inactivation in the parietal but not in the frontal cortex. It is suggested that the lowering of the rate of somatostatin(1–14) inactivation in the parietal cortex of SDAT brains likely results from the depletion of endopeptidase 24.15 in this brain region.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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