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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; tumor ; CELL ; human ; COMMON ; DISEASE ; SITES ; PROTEINS ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; TUMORS ; TIME ; PATIENT ; DNA ; SKIN ; papillomavirus ; antibody ; IN-SITU ; LESIONS ; COPY NUMBER ; human papillomavirus ; GENOTYPES ; HPV ; REPLICATION ; glutathione-S-transferase ; PSORIASIS ; EPIDERMODYSPLASIA-VERRUCIFORMIS ; hair ; GENOTYPE ; NONMELANOMA SKIN-CANCER ; USA ; PLUCKED EYEBROW HAIRS ; CLINICAL-ASPECTS ; HAIRS ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS-DNA
    Abstract: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare disease, characterized by cutaneous warts and associated with a strong predisposition to beta-genus human papillomavirus (HPV). Earlier studies reported high copy numbers of HPV-DNA in nearly all skin tumors from EV patients, but neither HPV replication status in non-lesional skin nor anti-HPV seroreactivity in these patients have been reported yet. We therefore performed a comprehensive viral load analysis for the more common beta-HPV types on skin samples and plucked eyebrow hairs from four EV patients treated at our dermatology department. The results clearly demonstrate that they carry a multiplicity (up to eighteen types) of beta-HPV genotypes in both skin sites. Worthy of note, a high intrapatient concordance for specific types between hair bulbs and skin biopsies was observed and the same beta-PV profile was maintained over time. Viral load analysis revealed a load range between less than one HPV-DNA copy per 100 cells to more than 400 HPV-DNA copies per cell in both eyebrow hairs and skin proliferative lesions. Evaluation of seroreactivity to beta-HPV types in the four EV patients revealed that antibodies against the 16 beta-HPV were significantly more prevalent and showed higher titers than in the controls
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18923444
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: The innate immune response plays a pivotal role during human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) primary infection. Indeed, HCMV infection of primary fibroblasts rapidly triggers strong induction of type I interferons (IFN-I), accompanied by proinflammatory cytokine release. Here, we show that primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) infected with a mutant HCMV TB40/E strain unable to express UL83-encoded pp65 (v65Stop) produce significantly higher IFN-β levels than HFFs infected with the wild-type TB40/E strain or the pp65 revertant (v65Rev), suggesting that the tegument protein pp65 may dampen IFN-β production. To clarify the mechanisms through which pp65 inhibits IFN-β production, we analyzed the activation of the cGAS/STING/IRF3 axis in HFFs infected with either the wild type, the revertant v65Rev, or the pp65-deficient mutant v65Stop. We found that pp65 selectively binds to cGAS and prevents its interaction with STING, thus inactivating the signaling pathway through the cGAS/STING/IRF3 axis. Consistently, addition of exogenous cGAMP to v65Rev-infected cells triggered the production of IFN-β levels similar to those observed with v65Stop-infected cells, confirming that pp65 inactivation of IFN-β production occurs at the cGAS level. Notably, within the first 24 h of HCMV infection, STING undergoes proteasome degradation independently of the presence or absence of pp65. Collectively, our data provide mechanistic insights into the interplay between HCMV pp65 and cGAS, leading to subsequent immune evasion by this prominent DNA virus. IMPORTANCE Primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) produce type I IFN (IFN-I) when infected with HCMV. However, we observed significantly higher IFN-β levels when HFFs were infected with HCMV that was unable to express UL83-encoded pp65 (v65Stop), suggesting that pp65 (pUL83) may constitute a viral evasion factor. This study demonstrates that the HCMV tegument protein pp65 inhibits IFN-β production by binding and inactivating cGAS early during infection. In addition, this inhibitory activity specifically targets cGAS, since it can be bypassed via the addition of exogenous cGAMP, even in the presence of pp65. Notably, STING proteasome-mediated degradation was observed in both the presence and absence of pp65. Collectively, our data underscore the important role of the tegument protein pp65 as a critical molecular hub in HCMV's evasion strategy against the innate immune response.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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