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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Keywords: Conidia ; cultures ; fermentation ; G. fujikuroi ; morphological ; strains
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Strain H-984 of G. fujikuroi grown for 38 h in a shake flask with medium containing 20 g glucose l−1, 3 g yeast extract l−1, 2.5 g NH4NO3 l−1, 0.5 g KH2PO4 l−1, 0.1 g MgSO4 l−1, 1 g CaCO3 l−1, and inoculated into a bioreactor with medium containing 60 g glucose l−1; 1 g NH4Cl l−1; 3 g KH2PO4 l−1 and 1.5 g MgSO4 l−1 produced 1100 mg gibberellic acid l−1.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26 (1994), S. 1501-1506 
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Mesquite ; Carbon dioxide production ; Nitrogen mineralization ; Microbial biomass carbon ; Nitrous oxide production
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  In the central highlands of Mexico, the vegetation is dominated by mesquite (Prosopis spp.), a leguminous tree or shrub. An experiment was carried out to investigate how cultivating the land and the disappearance of the natural ecosystem affected the biological functioning of the soil. Soil was sampled from under the canopy of isolated (MESQ treatment) and densely growing mesquite trees (DENS treatment), from the surrounding soil not covered by the canopies of the trees (BARE treatment) and from adjacent land cultivated with maize (ARABLE treatment). Soil was characterized and then incubated aerobically for 39 days at 22±1  °C and CO2, N2O production, microbial biomass C and inorganic N concentrations were monitored. The organic C content was 2.3 times and 1.1 times greater in the MESQ and the BARE treatments, respectively, than in the ARABLE treatment, while microbial biomass C was 3.5 times and 1.3 times greater. The microbial biomass activity as expressed by CO2 production was 5.9 times and 3.9 times greater in the MESQ and the BARE treatments, respectively, than in the ARABLE treatment, while N mineralization, as witnessed by the increase in NO3 – concentrations, was 3.4 times and 1.7 times greater. No significant amounts of N2O were produced in any of the treatments. It was found that cultivating land characterized by the presence of mesquite changed its characteristics profoundly, and even soil not covered by tree canopies had higher microbial biomass C, and C and N mineralization than soil cultivated with maize and beans.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words CO2 production ; N2O production ; Nitrification ; Denitrification ; NH3 volatilization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Carbon (C) and Nitrogen dynamics and sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) production were investigated in a loamy soil amended with pig slurry. Pig slurry (40000kgha–1) or distilled H2O was applied to intact soil cores of the upper 5cm of a loamy soil which were incubated under aerobic conditions for 28 days at 25°C. Treatments were with or without acetylene (C2H2), which is assumed to inhibit the reduction of N2O to dinitrogen (N2), and with or without dicyandiamide (DCD), which is thought to inhibit nitrification. Volatilization of ammonia (NH3), pH, carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O production, and ammonium (NH4 +) and nitrate NO3 –) concentrations were monitored. The pH of the pig slurry amended soil increased from an initial value of 7.1 to pH 8.3 within 3 days; it then decreased slowly but was still at a value of 7.4 after 28 days. Twenty percent of the NH4 + applied volatilized within 28 days. Sixty percent of the C applied in the pig slurry evolved as CO2, if no priming effect was assumed, but only 38% evolved when the soil was amended with DCD. Pig slurry significantly increased denitrification and the ratio between its gaseous products, N2O and N2, was 0.21. No significant increases in NO3 – concentration occurred, and N2O produced through nitrification was 0.07mg N2O-N kg–1 day–1 or 33% of the total N2O produced. C2H2 was used as a C substrate by microorganisms and increased the production of N2O.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Catclaw ; Carbon dioxide production ; Inorganic N dynamics ; Soil microbial population
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  In the central highlands of Mexico, heavily eroded soils are often colonized by catclaw (Mimosa buincifiera): an N2-fixing shrub. An experiment was carried out to investigate how this shrub affected characteristics of the soil and its biological functioning. Soil was sampled from outside and under the canopy of catclaw at three sites characterized by different degrees of erosion and an increase in plant density. The soil microbial biomass C, total amounts of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and free-living N2-fixing micro-organisms were measured, while production of CO2 and dynamics of nitrate (NO3 –), nitrite (NO2 –) and ammonium (NH4 +) were monitored in an aerobic incubation at 22±1  °C for 35 days. The C content was 1.6 times greater in the area with the largest density of plants and the least erosion (RECUP) compared with the site with the lowest density and greatest erosion (DEGR), while it was 1.2 times greater under the canopy of the catclaw than outside it (average of the three sites). The incorporation of N into the soil organic matter was greater under the canopy of the catclaw than outside it as the C:N ratio was on average 8.4 and 9. 1, respectively. The microbial biomass C, as a percentage of soil organic matter, was 1.5 times greater in the RECUP than in the DEGR site. Greatest total number of colony-forming bacteria and fungi (mean of organisms found under and outside the canopy) were found in the RECUP treatment and lowest in the DEGR treatment. Free-living N2-fixing organisms and actinomycetes showed opposite trends. Greater total numbers of colony-forming bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and free-living N2-fixing organisms (mean of the three treatments) were found under the canopy of catclaw than outside of it, Production of CO2 was 1.8 times greater in the RECUP than in the DEGR and 1.6 times greater under the canopy of catclaw than outside. Production of NO3 – was 1.3 times greater in the RECUP than in the DEGR and 3.5 times greater under the canopy of catclaw than outside. There was no significant effect of location or canopy on NO2 – and NH4 + concentrations. It is concluded that the natural vegetation of catclaw increased microbial biomass and soil organic matter content under, but also outside its canopy, and preserved N better, releasing greater amounts of inorganic N upon mineralization. Catclaw can serve as a first colonizer of heavily eroded soil and be replaced by other vegetation, natural or crops, when fertility is restored.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Carbon dioxide production ; Nitrous oxide ; production ; Ammonia volatilization ; Pig slurry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Dynamics of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) were investigated in a loamy soil amended or injected with pig slurry. Treatments were with or without acetylene C2H2 (which is assumed to inhibit reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) to dinitrogen (N2), and soil cores were conditioned for 15 days at 25°C while pH, production of CO2 and N2O, ammonia (NH3) emission and (nitrate) (NO3 –) and (ammonium) (NH4 +) concentrations were monitored. There was no significant difference in CO2 production between the injected and surface applied pig slurry treatments, and within 15 days ca. 5% of the C applied had been mineralized, if no priming effect was assumed. Neither the production of N2O nor the total gaseous production of the denitrification process (N2O plus N2) were affected by the way the pig slurry was added to the soil. NH3 volatilization, however, decreased by 90% when pig slurry was injected. The addition of C2H2 significantly increased the CO2 production and the concentration of NH4 +, but significantly decreased the concentration of NO3 –. It was concluded that the injection of pig slurry to a dry soil was an acceptable alternative to its application to the soil surface, as not only was NH3 volatilization reduced, but the production of N2O and N2 through denitrification was not stimulated. It is also suggested that the composition of the organic C fraction in the pig slurry, most likely the concentration of fatty acids, had an important effect on the dynamics of N and C in the soil.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Alkaline saline soils ; Micro-organisms ; Characteristics ; C and N mineralization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  Soils from the former Lake Texcoco are alkaline saline and were artificially drained and irrigated with sewage effluents since the late 1980s. Undrained soil and soil drained for 1, 5 and 8 years were sampled, characterized and incubated aerobically for 90 days at 22±1  °C while production of CO2, available P and concentrations of NH4 +, NO2 – and NO3 – were monitored. Artificial drainage decreased pHH2O, water holding capacity, organic C, total N, and Na+, K+, Mg2+, B, Cl– and SO4 2– concentrations, increased inorganic C and Ca2+ concentrations more than 5-fold while total P was not affected. Microbial biomass C decreased with increased length of drainage but bacteria, actinomycetes, denitrifiers and cellulose-utilizing bacteria tended to show opposite trends. CO2 production was less in soils drained ≥5 years compared to undrained soil but more than in soils drained for 1 year. Emission of NH3 was negligible and concentrations of NH4 + remained constant over time in each soil. Nitrification, as witnessed by increases in NO3 – concentrations, occurred in soil drained for 8 years. NO2 – concentrations decreased in soils drained ≤1 year in the first 7 days of the incubation and remained constant thereafter. It was found that artificial drainage of soils from the former Lake Texcoco profoundly affected soil characteristics. Decreases in pH and Na+, K+, Cl– and SO4 2– concentrations made conditions more favourable for plant growth, although low concentrations of inorganic N and available P might be limiting factors.
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