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  • 1
    Keywords: UNITED-STATES ; BEHAVIOR ; SMOKERS ; CLUSTER ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; GENETIC-VARIATION ; NICOTINE DEPENDENCE ; INTERPLAY ; CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 ; QUANTITY
    Abstract: Background: Recent meta-analyses show strong evidence of associations among genetic variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25, smoking quantity, and lung cancer. This meta-analysis tests whether the CHRNA5 variant rs16969968 predicts age of smoking cessation and age of lung cancer diagnosis. Methods: Meta-analyses examined associations between rs16969968, age of quitting smoking, and age of lung cancer diagnosis in 24 studies of European ancestry (n = 29 072). In each dataset, we used Cox regression models to evaluate the association between rs16969968 and the two primary phenotypes (age of smoking cessation among ever smokers and age of lung cancer diagnosis among lung cancer case patients) and the secondary phenotype of smoking duration. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed with the Cochran Q test. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The rs16969968 allele (A) was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91 to 0.98, P =.0042), and the AA genotype was associated with a four-year delay in median age of quitting compared with the GG genotype. Among smokers with lung cancer diagnoses, the rs16969968 genotype (AA) was associated with a four-year earlier median age of diagnosis compared with the low-risk genotype (GG) (HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.12, P = 1.1*10(-5)). Conclusion: These data support the clinical significance of the CHRNA5 variant rs16969968. It predicts delayed smoking cessation and an earlier age of lung cancer diagnosis in this meta-analysis. Given the existing evidence that this CHRNA5 variant predicts favorable response to cessation pharmacotherapy, these findings underscore the potential clinical and public health importance of rs16969968 in CHRNA5 in relation to smoking cessation success and lung cancer risk.d: Recent meta-analyses show strong evidence of associations among genetic variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25, smoking quantity, and lung cancer. This meta-analysis tests whether the CHRNA5 variant rs16969968 predicts age of smoking cessation and age of lung cancer diagnosis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25873736
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recent meta-analyses show that individuals with high risk variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25 are likely to develop lung cancer earlier than those with low-risk genotypes. The same high-risk genetic variants also predict nicotine dependence and delayed smoking cessation. It is unclear whether smoking cessation confers the same benefits in terms of lung cancer risk reduction for those who possess CHRNA5 risk variants versus those who do not. METHODS: Meta-analyses examined the association between smoking cessation and lung cancer risk in 15 studies of individuals with European ancestry who possessed varying rs16969968 genotypes (N=12,690 ever smokers, including 6988 cases of lung cancer and 5702 controls) in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. RESULTS: Smoking cessation (former vs. current smokers) was associated with a lower likelihood of lung cancer (OR=0.48, 95%CI=0.30-0.75, p=0.0015). Among lung cancer patients, smoking cessation was associated with a 7-year delay in median age of lung cancer diagnosis (HR=0.68, 95%CI=0.61-0.77, p=4.9 *10-10). The CHRNA5 rs16969968 risk genotype (AA) was associated with increased risk and earlier diagnosis for lung cancer, but the beneficial effects of smoking cessation were very similar in those with and without the risk genotype. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7years for those who develop it. These results: 1) underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2) suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3) have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27543155
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0013-4686
    Keywords: electro-oxidation ; electrocatalysis ; hydrazine ; porphyrin
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Commentarii mathematici Helvetici 75 (2000), S. 368-409 
    ISSN: 1420-8946
    Keywords: Keywords. Rods, bushes, clannish algebras, self-reproducing systems.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract. In the present paper we introduce the notion of representations of a bush which is a generalization of matrix problems (self-reproducing systems) introduced by Nazarova and Roiter. We show that the problem of classifying representations of clannish algebras come down to such generalized matrix problems. Based on the classification of Crawley-Boevey, we provide a description of indecomposable representations of bushes over any field. The proof is based on a categorical formulation of the matrix reduction of Nazarova and Roiter.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A 16-channel electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic system, developed by UC Davis in collaboration with the FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen, has been installed on the Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research tokamak. The system is designed to collect multichannel electron temperature profile and fluctuation data along a vertical chord of constant magnetic field, by collecting second harmonic X-mode emission. Technical details of the system are presented together with preliminary experimental data. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: After more than 4 decades of fusion research, plasma transport in tokamaks remains an outstanding issue. The standard hypothesis, that the observed anomalous transport is caused by small scale turbulence, is consistent with experimental observations, but it is neither based on a self-consistent theory of plasma turbulence nor on an exhaustive set of turbulence measurements. One of the major obstacles to the development of a satisfactory anomalous transport theory is the inability of standard fluctuation diagnostics to provide the full spectrum of turbulent fluctuations. The result is a nearly complete reliance on numerical simulations. Unfortunately, in spite of the enormous capabilities of today's computers, this is extremely unsatisfactory since any theory or simulation of plasma turbulence can only be driven by direct experimental observations. The first step in achieving such data was the highly successful UC Davis Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) Imaging system, which was first developed for use on the TEXT-U tokamak and later modified for use on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project tokamak.1 Here, correlation techniques are applied to spatially resolved second harmonic ECE signals to provide detailed information about the microturbulence associated with Te fluctuations. The present work extends this work by developing a similar technique for spatially resolved ne fluctuations via microwave imaging reflectometry. The result is a diagnostic capable of the simultaneous measurement of both Te and ne fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles on toroidal devices such as tokamaks and stellarators. A 16 channel ECE imaging system has recently been installed on the Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR) tokamak. A prototype millimeter wave imaging reflectometry system will be installed on TEXTOR in July 2000, which will operate in V band (50–75 GHz) and reflect from the X-mode cutoff. Data collected with this system will be utilized in the design of the full three- dimensional (3D) imaging system, which is scheduled for installation on TEXTOR in April 2001. System details and laboratory characterization results of the prototype reflectometric imaging system will be presented, along with a preliminary design for the full 3D system. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Millimeter-wave imaging arrays employing slot bow-tie (SBT) antenna elements and GaAs Schottky diodes have previously been previously successfully developed and utilized in electron cyclotron emission imaging systems, which have proven to be an important new plasma diagnostic technique for measuring plasma electron temperature profiles and fluctuations. More recently, there has been interest in applying similar arrays for reflectrometric imaging. Here, the design of SBT antennas for proof-of-principle millimeter-wave imaging reflectometry receiver arrays for use on Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research is presented. These low-cost, 14-channel Schottky mixer diode arrays, designed at 85 GHz, have been developed for measuring plasma electron density fluctuation profiles, which are expected to solve the long standing issue of ambiguity in the interpretation of reflectometric data. The final layout of the array is shown, together with details and experimental results of single SBT antennas. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECE imaging or ECEI) is a novel plasma diagnostic technique for the study of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations in magnetic fusion plasma devices. Instead of a single receiver located in the tokamak midplane as in conventional ECE radiometers, ECEI systems utilize large diameter imaging optics coupled with planar millimeter-wave imaging arrays to form multichannel ECE diagnostics with excellent spatial resolution. Combined with specially designed imaging optics, the use of these compact, low cost arrays has resulted in the excellent spatial resolution of the ECEI systems, the unique capability of two-dimensional measurements, and flexibility in the measurement of plasma fluctuations. Technical details and principles of this emerging diagnostic technique are described in this article. Illustrative experimental results are presented, together with a discussion of the further development of the diagnostic. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A 16-channel electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging diagnostic system has been developed and installed on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project for measuring plasma electron cyclotron emission with a temporal resolution of 2 μs. The high spatial resolution of the system is achieved by utilizing a low cost linear mixer/receiver array. Unlike conventional ECE diagnostics, the sample volumes of the ECE imaging system are aligned vertically, and can be shifted across the plasma cross-section by varying the local oscillator frequency, making possible 2D measurements of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations. The poloidal/radial wavenumber spectra and correlation lengths of Te fluctuations in the plasma core can also be obtained by properly positioning the focal plane of the imaging system. Due to these unique features, ECE imaging is an ideal tool for plasma transport study. Technical details of the system are described, together with preliminary experimental results. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Mathematical Biosciences 119 (1994), S. 241-250 
    ISSN: 0025-5564
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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